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Go to Bible: Proverbs 31
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“excellent wife.” For more on the translation “excellent,” see commentary on Proverbs 12:4, “excellent.”
There has been much discussion by the scholars about who the woman in Proverbs 31:10-31 refers to, and there are two major opinions about it. One is that since the Hebrew text of the first thirty chapters of Proverbs is very predominantly male-oriented, the last section of Proverbs refers to the ideal wife. The second opinion is that starting in Proverbs 1:20 and going throughout the book, wisdom (and understanding, discretion, and discernment) and folly have been personified as women, while the people they are trying to influence are men. In that light, it makes sense that Proverbs 31:10-31 is simply continuing that flow of thought and portraying the ideal wife as the embodiment of Wisdom.
We see value in both opinions. We see that Proverbs 31 is portraying an ideal wife in the sense that an ideal wife (and the ideal woman) should strive to be as much like the woman in Proverbs 31 as her circumstances and culture allow. Nevertheless, there are problems with trying to make all of Proverbs 31:10-31 fit with a literal “wise wife.” As Roland Murphy writes, “Who could achieve in many lifetimes what she achieves in these verses” (Word Biblical Commentary). Furthermore, there are several things mentioned in Proverbs 31 that would not be “ideal” for a woman in the biblical culture. These include going out into the world and trading (Prov. 31:11); buying and selling land (Prov. 31:16), and tying her clothes up around her waist (Prov. 31:17).
Thus, we see how and why Proverbs 31 is portraying Wisdom as a wife, and that the lessons in the section generally apply to both men and women. In the same way that the Hebrew text of Proverbs 1:4 is specifically addressed to the “young man,” but many versions read “youth” or “young person” because the lessons apply to women also, in Proverbs 31 the ideal wife is an embodiment of wisdom and the lessons apply to both men and women.
Wisdom and Folly are personified as women throughout Proverbs, and the personification is designed to make a point and also to make the text easy to understand. When Lady Wisdom calls out to the naïve men and invites them to come to her house and eat her food and live (Prov. 9:1-6), and the adulteress Lady Folly calls out to the naïve men and invites them to come to her house and eat secret bread and drink stolen waters, that is, have sex (Prov. 9:13-18), we are not to assume that all wise and foolish people are women and all naïve people are men. These are personifications and general portraits that allow us to see wisdom and folly in action, and show us the value in being wise rather than foolish. Nevertheless, in Proverbs 9, as in Proverbs 31, we do see that there is also a “real” aspect to the personification. The reason the personification and story in Proverbs 9 works so well is that there are a lot of naïve and foolish young men who will ignore the invitation of Wisdom and go visit a prostitute or an adulteress who is boisterous, pushy, glamorous, and offers sex.
Another piece of evidence that supports the position that the wife in Proverbs 31 is a continuation of the personification of Wisdom throughout Proverbs, a piece of evidence that is not mentioned by a large number of commentators, is that there is a very strong connection between what the wife in Proverbs 31 does and what Wisdom does earlier in Proverbs. For example, the wife is worth more than gems (Prov. 31:10), and Wisdom is worth more than gems (Prov. 3:15; 8:11). The wife does her husband good and not evil (Prov. 31:12), while Wisdom helps us find a good way of life (Prov. 2:9-10) and hates evil (Prov. 8:12-13). The wife profits the household and is like the “ships of a merchant,” while Wisdom also brings in profit (Prov. 3:14). The wife gets food and provides it for her household (Prov. 31:14-15), while Wisdom also procures and provides food (Prov. 9:1-2). The wife has jobs for her female servants (Prov. 31:15), and Wisdom has jobs for her female servants (Prov. 9:3). The wife deals well and has “fruit” (profit) from her labor (Prov. 31:16), while Wisdom has “fruit” that is better than gold (Prov. 8:19). The wife girds herself with strength (Prov. 31:17), while a wise person has strength (Prov. 24:5). The wife perceives her “gain” (profit from trading) is good (Prov. 31:18), and Wisdom’s gain is better than silver (Prov. 3:14). The wife laughs at the future, revealing her playful nature (Prov. 31:25), while Wisdom laughed and played when God was making the earth (Prov. 8:30-31). The wife watches over her household (Prov. 31:27) just as Wisdom and her female attendants watch and guard us (Prov. 2:10-11). Given all that, we can see why T. McCreesh concludes, “chapter 31 is the book’s final masterful portrait of Wisdom” (quoted in R. Murphy, Word Biblical Commentary, p. 246).
Another thing that is worth noting in comparing the wife in Proverbs 31 to Wisdom is that there is a pun about “wisdom” in the Hebrew text of Proverbs 31:27. The Hebrew says, “she keeps watch” but the exact Hebrew word is tsophia (צוֹפִיָּה), a form of the verb that occurs only here in the entire Hebrew Bible and that is pronounced almost exactly like sophia, the Greek word for “wisdom.” Sometimes language puns happen accidentally, and that cannot be completly ruled out here, nevertheless, the fact that this Hebrew verb occurs only here in the entire Bible, combined with the fact that all of Proverbs has been about wisdom and this is the closing section of the book of Proverbs, is quite good evidence that this was not an accident but a divinely constructed pun. So the verse clearly seems to have a sort of “hidden meaning” along with the more obvious meaning, one that says, “‘wisdom’ is the way of her household.” It makes sense that the way of Wisdom’s household would be wisdom.
We conclude that Proverbs 31:10-31 is a portrait of Lady Wisdom, as embodied in a strong woman. Women can and should try to emulate Wisdom, and men can learn from her as well. [For more on the figure of speech personification, see commentary on Prov. 1:20, “wisdom”].
“gems.” The Hebrew word paniyn (#06443 פָּנִין) is traditionally translated “rubies,” but it seems that cannot be correct. Rubies were not known in the Middle East until much later than the time Proverbs was written. The most likely candidate for the word is “coral.” There is a very beautiful orange-red coral in the Mediterranean Sea that grows too deep to be gathered until modern times, so it was very rare and only occasionally washed up on the shore. So in biblical times the coral was rare and therefore very valuable. Now it is just another coral, and although it is beautiful, it does not have much value.
The fact that the value of coral has changed dramatically causes a problem for translators, because in biblical times Proverbs could say “coral” and everyone understood it would be like saying “diamonds” or “rubies” today. But those gems did not exist in the biblical period as we know them now, so introducing them causes a historical anachronism and error. On the other hand, literally translating the Hebrew and saying “coral” causes a different type of error, because in today’s language you would be implying that, at her best, Wisdom (Prov. 3:15), and the virtuous woman (Prov. 31:10), were not worth very much.
The best compromise seems to be to translate the Hebrew word paniyn as “gems,” “jewels,” or some other more neutral word that gets across the meaning of a precious stone or gem without specifying the exact gem.
This problem that happens with the value of items from culture to culture and throughout time shows up in a number of places in the Bible. For example, at the time of Christ the pearl was the apex gem in the culture due to its rarity, and until the invention of cultured pearls and then the scuba tank, pearls were always very expensive and highly valued. But now they are not nearly as valuable as they once were. [For more on pearls in the biblical culture, see commentary on Matthew 13:45].(top)
“no lack of gain.” The Hebrew word translated “gain” is shalal (#07998 שָׁלָל), and it means spoil (as in the spoils of war), plunder, booty, prey. It refers to the spoils or booty won in war. There are some lexicons that claim that the word should simply be “gain” in this verse, but there does not seem to be good lexical support for that; it seems clear that “gain” refers to the gain she won in the daily wars of life.
The picture being painted in the Hebrew text in Proverbs 31:11 is the husband having the riches he needs to be peaceful and comfortable because his wife goes out and fights the battles in life necessary to procure a living, and brings the spoils or plunder she has won back to the household. This is one of the verses in Proverbs 31 that shows us that the wise wife of Proverbs 31 refers to both men and women, just as Lady Wisdom and Lady Folly throughout Proverbs refer to both men and women (other verses that are typically male behavior are Prov. 31:16-17).
Women would not typically be portrayed as going out of the house into the world and fighting the wars of life that brought prosperity to the household. It was the common cultural understanding that the women’s domain was inside the walls of the house while the man’s domain was outside the house. Going and fighting the worldly wars that brought success to the household was the job of the man of the house, and the wise man fights and wins those wars for his family and brings home the spoils of war. [For more on the woman in Proverbs 31 referring to both men and women, see commentary on Prov. 31:10].(top)
“She brings him good.” The Hebrew is more literally, “she does him good,” but in American English that phrase is used to refer to what a woman does for a man that improves him. Thus, “she does him good” might be used of a wife who helps her husband have a social life. However, Proverbs 31:12 is not primarily about the wife improving her husband in a personal sense, but rather that she brings him good in the sense of bringing good things to the household, including to her husband. In this context, the word “good” is not used of moral good, but rather of material good (i.e., money, things, and such as that).(top)
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“She gets up while it is still night.” People who get a lot done do not “sleep in” just because they can; they feel a purpose in their life and get up and get about doing it. Jesus got up in the dark and went to a place alone to pray (Mark 1:35).
“and tasks for her female servants.” The meaning of the Hebrew word choq (#02706 חֹק) is debated. It can mean “tasks” or “orders,” as some versions take it (cp. ASV; CJB; DBY; NJB; NLT; NRSV), or it can mean “portions” of food, as other versions take it (cp. CSB; ESV; JBS; NAB; NASB). The Hebrew-English lexicons list “tasks” or “orders” (cp. HALOT; TDOT), or it can mean a “portion” of food (cp. NIDOTTE; TWOT). The main support for a “portion” of food is that it fits the parallelism in the verse, and it is the usage of choq in Proverbs 30:8. The main support for “tasks” is that in the biblical culture the lady of the house would not get up and prepare food for her female slaves; it would be a slave who would prepare food for her (see D. Garrett, The New American Commentary). It would be possible, however, for the lady of the house to get up and direct her female slaves in the preparation and serving of breakfast, making sure that each woman got her fair share of the food. So the meaning that the author had in mind in this verse is uncertain; It is also possible that both “tasks” and “portions” of food could be meant here, that the lady of the house got up and oversaw her household, making sure the servants got fed and had their daily tasks assigned.(top)
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“wraps her waist.” The Hebrew is often translated, “girds her loins.” To “gird” is to wrap with a flexible band, like a belt or sash, and the loins are the hips and small of the back, the strong muscles that connect the upper and lower parts of the body. Effectively, to “gird the loins” is to wrap the waist. This is one of the verses in Proverbs 31 that is good evidence that the section is not just about women, but that the wife embodies Wisdom and the lessons apply to both men and women, because women did not tie up their clothing in the biblical culture.
“Girding up the loins” is an idiom, and it is difficult to translate. It comes from the biblical culture in which standard outer garb for men was a long, ankle-length robe (the woman’s outer robe was longer than the man’s, even sometimes touching the ground). The robe provided warmth and shelter from the elements, and it sometimes was used as a person’s blanket at night (cp. Exod. 22:27). Merchants would pull up the robe at the waist, tuck it in, and create a kind of pocket they could keep things in, and bribes were often hidden in the fold of the garment (see commentary on Prov. 21:4). But the long robe would get in the way when a man needed to fight, move fast or work hard, so he would gather it up and tie it at the waist so it would be short and out of the way. In contrast, a woman in the biblical culture would never “gird up her loins” by gathering up her garment so that her legs were exposed. However, if we understand the idiom was used to refer to people being prepared for action (see commentary on 1 Pet. 1:13), then we can see how an idiom that was used of male behavior could also apply to women. [For more on Prov. 31:10-31 applying to both women and men, see commentary on Prov. 31:10].(top)
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“scarlet.” Wool took dye very well, and Bruce Waltke suggests that the color scarlet is a metonymy for what was dyed scarlet, which is wool. Although some versions have “double garments,” the Masoretic text has “scarlet,” which is the more difficult reading and therefor much more likely original.(top)
“coverings.” The Hebrew noun translated “coverings” is marbad (#04765 מַרְבָד), and it refers to different kinds of coverings. In Proverbs 7:16, marbad is used of covers put on a couch. It could also refer to covers for a bed or even for a personal covering; some kind of wrap against the weather or cold.
“for herself.” This is the only place in Proverbs 31 where the text mentions the woman doing something for herself. She enjoys having a nicely decorated home and personal attire and makes it happen.
“fine linen and purple.” Often fine linen came out of Egypt, while purple cloth comes from the north, from Phoenicia. So the text implies that the woman engaged in trade to enrich herself and her household.
“purple.” Purple dye was rare and very expensive, so this excellent wife works hard to see that she is well dressed for the position she holds in society (see commentary on 2 Chron. 3:14).(top)
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“instruction.” See commentary on Proverbs 1:8. “Instruction about covenant faithfulness” is an objective genitive (see Waltke; Proverbs).(top)
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“let her works praise her at the city gates.” The city gates were where the elders of the city sat to oversee the affairs of the city and act as judges when necessary. The husband of the godly woman sits with the elders at the gates (Prov. 31:23). Also, there is a possibility that some of the elders are wearing garments that she made (Prov. 31:24). [For more on the elders sitting at the city gates, see commentary on Ruth 4:11].(top)