Matthew Chapter 20  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Bible: Matthew 20
 
Mat 20:1(top)
Mat 20:2(top)
Mat 20:3

“third hour.” About our 9 a.m. The original workers had likely started about 6 a.m., the start of the day, and when hired for a day were expected to work until 6 p.m.; 12 hours.

Both the Jews and Romans divided the day into 12 hours, starting at daylight, roughly 6 a.m. The start of the Christian Church on the Day of Pentecost, marked by the outpouring of the gift of holy spirit, occurred at the third hour of the day (cp. Acts 2:15).

[For the hours of the day and the watches of the night, see commentary on Mark 6:48.]

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Mat 20:4(top)
Mat 20:5

“sixth hour; ninth hour.” The sixth hour is our noon, and the ninth hour is our 3 p.m. Both the Jews and Romans divided the day into 12 hours, starting at daylight, roughly 6 a.m.

[For the hours of the day and the watches of the night, see commentary on Mark 6:48.]

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Mat 20:6

“eleventh hour.” The eleventh hour is roughly 5 p.m. (see commentary on Matt. 20:5). The workers were hired at the eleventh hour, and were expected to work until 6 p.m.

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Mat 20:7(top)
Mat 20:8

“evening having come.” This is defined in Matt. 20:12 as 6 p.m. The last workers started at the eleventh hour, 5 p.m., and worked only one hour.

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Mat 20:9(top)
Mat 20:10(top)
Mat 20:11(top)
Mat 20:12(top)
Mat 20:13(top)
Mat 20:14(top)
Mat 20:15

“Is your eye evil.” Meaning, are you greedy for more, covetous of what the others received? The “evil eye” was idiomatic in Semitic languages for someone who was greedy, covetous, and stingy. In Western cultures, the “evil eye” was a look or glance that meant harm and brought harm, but there is no evidence it was used that way in the Bible. See commentary on Matthew 6:22.

[For more on the idiom of the good eye, see commentary on Prov. 22:9. For more on the idiom of the evil eye, see commentary on Prov. 28:22.]

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Mat 20:16(top)
Mat 20:17

“And as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem.” This record of Jesus telling the Twelve Apostles that he would be arrested and killed is in Matthew 20:17-19, Mark 10:32-34, and Luke 18:31-34.

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Mat 20:18

“Pay attention!” The Greek word translated “pay attention” is idou (#2400 ἰδού), and it is used to get our attention. See commentary on Matthew 1:20.

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Mat 20:19(top)
Mat 20:20

“the mother of the sons of Zebedee.” This record also occurs in Mark 10:35-45 (see commentary on Mark 10:35). The mother of James and John and the wife of Zebedee was named “Salome” (“Peaceful”). This can be determined by comparing Matthew 27:56 with Mark 15:40; 16:1-2. She witnessed the crucifixion (Mark 15:40) and was one of the women who brought spices on Sunday morning to anoint the body of Jesus (Mark 16:1). Many infer from John 19:25 that Salome was the sister of Mary, and that is likely true. We should note that the grammar of John 19:25 would allow for the possibility that Mary the wife of Clopas was Mary’s sister, but it seems that would not have been very likely because it is somewhat doubtful that parents would name two different daughters “Mary.”

“bowing down.” For more on bowing down, see commentary on Matthew 2:2.

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Mat 20:21(top)
Mat 20:22

“drink the cup.” “Drinking the cup” was a common idiom meaning to experience, whether that experience was good (cp. Ps. 16:5; 23:5; 116:13; Jer. 16:7) or bad (cp. Ps. 11:6; 75:8; Isa. 51:17; Jer. 25:15). Jesus spoke of the cup of his sufferings (Matt. 26:39, 42; Mark 14:36; Luke 22:42).

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Mat 20:23(top)
Mat 20:24

“angry.” The Greek word is aganakteō (#23 ἀγανακτέω), and it refers to being angry or displeased at a situation that is perceived to be unjust.

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Mat 20:25(top)
Mat 20:26(top)
Mat 20:27(top)
Mat 20:28

“life.” The Greek word is psuchē (#5590 ψυχή; pronounced psoo-'kay), often translated “soul.” The Greek word has a large number of meanings, including the physical life of a person or animal; an individual person; or attitudes, emotions, feelings, and thoughts. Here it refers to the physical life of the body, which is why most versions translate it “life,” which is accurate in this context. This verse is evidence that the soul does not continue on after the body dies. Jesus gave up his soul and died so that others could have life.

[For a more complete explanation of psuchē, “soul,” see Appendix 7: “Usages of ‘Soul.’”]

“ransom.” The Greek word is lutron (#3083 λύτρον; pronounced 'loo-tron). In the Greek literature, the lutron, “ransom” was the price paid for the release of a slave or prisoner of war. See commentary on Mark 10:45.

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Mat 20:29

“going out from Jericho.” This record occurs in Matthew 20:29-34, Mark 10:46-52 and Luke 18:35-43. The timing of the event in Matthew and Mark seems to contradict Luke 18:35-39, but they actually do not (see commentary on Luke 18:35).

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Mat 20:30

“Look!” The Greek word is idou (#2400 ἰδού), and it is used to get our attention. See commentary on Matthew 1:20.

“Son of David.” A messianic title. It is not known how these men came to believe that Jesus was the Messiah, but they did. God reveals the truth to people who are humble and hungry for truth (see commentary on Matthew 1:1).

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Mat 20:31(top)
Mat 20:32(top)
Mat 20:33(top)
Mat 20:34(top)
  

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