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Go to Bible: Matthew 15
“Then Pharisees and experts in the law.” This teaching about clean and unclean is more detailed in Mark 7:1-23.(top)
|Mat 15:2||- (top)|
“even you yourselves.” The kai (#2532 καί) before the emphatic humeis (5210 ὑμεῖ) is not ‘also’ and does not place the Pharisees alongside of Jesus’ disciples [as if they too had sinned]; it signifies ‘even you yourselves,’ the very ones who are truly guilty of transgression, while they pretend to find transgression in others” Lenski, Matthew, p. 583.(top)
Quoted from Exodus 20:12 (Deut. 5:16) and Exodus 21:17.(top)
|Mat 15:5||- (top)|
|Mat 15:6||- (top)|
|Mat 15:7||- (top)|
Quoted from Isaiah 29:13.
“The People.” The text is more properly “This People.” The nation of Israel was called “the People,” so it is appropriate to capitalize it when it refers to Israel.(top)
Quoted from Isaiah 29:13.
“Moreover.” This comes from the quote in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament. See Lenski, Matthew, p. 587.
“doctrines.” The Greek word is didaskalia (#1319 διδασκαλία), a noun, and it has two primary meanings: It is used of the act of teaching or instruction (as if it was a verb), and it is also used for what is taught, i.e., the doctrine or material that was presented. In this verse we felt “doctrine” was better than “teaching.” [For more on didaskalia see commentary on 1 Tim. 4:13].(top)
|Mat 15:10||- (top)|
|Mat 15:11||- (top)|
|Mat 15:12||- (top)|
|Mat 15:13||- (top)|
|Mat 15:14||- (top)|
|Mat 15:15||- (top)|
|Mat 15:16||- (top)|
“sewer.” The Greek word is aphedrōn (#856 ἀφεδρών), and it refers to a place where human waste goes: toilet, latrine, privy, sewer. By the time of Christ many of the larger cities even in Israel had some kind of public toilets and sewer systems. Often there were seats over a kind of sluice that was periodically flushed by water. Also, some cities had very developed sewer systems. Caesarea Maritima and Scythopolis are two prime examples. For example, Caesarea, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, had a sewer system that was flushed by the tide.(top)
“come out of the heart.” The “heart” is the source of life. Mark 7:20-23 has a list of things that come out of the heart that is more inclusive that this list in Matthew. The Bible says in many different places that what comes out of the mouth generally originates in the heart (cp. Matt. 12:34; Luke 6:45). Although the biblical use of “heart” refers to the center of a person’s life and may include the interworking of the heart, brain, and other organs as well, modern medicine is now showing more and more each year that the actual physical heart not only has a leading role in directing the physical/chemical/emotional activities of the body, but has been shown to even have stored memories. Proverbs 4:23 tells us that above all else, we are to guard our heart, because from it come the issues of life. [For more on the heart, see commentary on Prov. 4:23].(top)
“insults.” The Greek noun is blasphēmia (#988 βλασφημία; pronounced blas-fay-me’-ah), and was used of someone speaking against another. The primary meaning as it was used in the Greek culture was showing disrespect to a person or deity, and/or harming his, her, or its reputation. [For more on blasphēmia, see commentary on Matt. 9:3].(top)
“does not defile the person.” The Mosaic Law stated that eating certain foods made a person “unclean” in the eyes of God (Lev. 11:4-24), but Jesus changed the Levitical law on food and made it all “clean” (cp. Mark. 7:19).(top)
|Mat 15:21||- (top)|
“Look!” The Greek word is idou (#2400 ἰδού), and it is used to get our attention. See commentary on Matthew 1:20 (“Look!).(top)
“as she follows us.” The Greek reads, “from behind us,” which most versions translate “after us.” However, to cry out “after” someone can mean that you are chasing after, or “chasing,” the person (like “He is after me,” means “He is chasing me”), but that is not its meaning here. She was not chasing them. She knew they heard her and that she was being ignored. So she was walking behind them trying to get them to change their minds and help her; give her mercy. We tried to better capture the sense of the scene with “as she follows us.” Jesus was coming into the region of Tyre and Sidon, on the Phoenician coast, and was apparently walking down the road with the apostles following him. This woman followed the group, crying out as she went, “Have mercy on me!”(top)
|Mat 15:24||- (top)|
“bow down before.” See commentary on Matthew 2:2.(top)
(Cp. Mark 7:27-28)
“good.” Read below.
“dog” = little dog. This verse is a wonderful example of how one reading the Bible must pay attention to the cultural background involved. Although Jesus was Jewish and most of the time in the Gospels the standards of Jewish culture apply, in this verse the standards of Greek culture apply. The Greek is kunarion (#2952 κυνάριον), which is the diminutive of “dog.” It sometimes happened in the Greek and Roman world (although not in the Jewish world except among those who had given up being Kosher and were more apt to follow Roman customs) that “little dogs,” or “house dogs” were kept, and like our house dogs today, sometimes ate under (or beside) the table (Cp. Xenophon, Plato, Theophrastus, Plutarch, others. See Thayer’s lexicon and Liddell and Scott). The word can also refer to “puppies,” (Cp. Liddell and Scott; Vine) but that would probably not be the case here, since the woman was a Syrophoenician and would have been familiar with the Greek custom of having a little house dog that would eat by the table. The reference to the “little dog” is made only in the account of the Syrophoenician woman. There is no other use of kunarion in the Septuagint (Greek OT) or the Greek NT.
That Jesus would say “little dogs” is amazing grace. He did not, even by implication, call her a “dog,” which in Greek culture had overtones of shamelessness or audacity in women (cp. Liddell and Scott). Instead, by using the word “little dog,” or “housedog,” he only made a glancing reference that she did not deserve any help (but really, who does?). He opened a door of grace for her, and she walked through it. Also, he said it was not “good,” kalos (#2570 καλός), for the children’s bread to be thrown to the little dogs. He did not use the word “lawful” (exestin, #1832). Rather, it was not “good” or “proper,” or “a fine thing to do.”(top)
“for even...” It would not be correct to translate this as “but,” “however,” etc. The woman is not opposing Jesus in any way. She is merely pointing out that the little dogs do get crumbs when the family eats.
Also see commentary on Matt 15:26.(top)
|Mat 15:28||- (top)|
|Mat 15:29||- (top)|
|Mat 15:30||- (top)|
“glorified the God of Israel.” This is a very good indication that many in the crowd were Gentiles, not Israelites. Jesus had been ministering in the region of Tyre and Sidon, Gentile areas, and had done a miraculous healing there of a demonized girl. Right after leaving there, the text says that “great multitudes” came to him, and it makes sense that many of those multitudes were Gentiles, and that was why they “glorified the God of Israel.” Matthew 15:31 is one of only two places in the New Testament where that phrase is used. “The God of Israel” was a common phrase in the Old Testament, and spoken by Zechariah at the birth of his son, John the Baptist (Luke 1:68), but it is not used anywhere else in the New Testament but those two places. When the crowds were Jews, they “glorified God” (cp. Matt. 9:8; Mark 2:12; Luke 2:28; 7:16; 13:13; 18:43; etc.).(top)
|Mat 15:32||- (top)|
|Mat 15:33||- (top)|
|Mat 15:34||- (top)|
|Mat 15:35||- (top)|
|Mat 15:36||- (top)|
“seven.” Many theologians have tried to figure out what is the significance of mentioning in the record that there were “seven” large baskets of leftover bread—why mention the number seven? The number seven is included in the record for a reason, and while there actually may be several different things it relates to, one of them certainly seems to be a reference to the fact that Jesus would be a blessing to the Gentiles.
To understand the feeding of the 4000, we must read it in connection with the feeding of the 5000. The two records both show that the Messiah will provide for God’s people (for all intents and purposes, the audience was God’s people—people who believed in Jesus or were seeking his teaching and help. Surely there were some people who were there just due to curiosity, but even they were “seekers” at some level. Non-believers stayed home and did not take the trouble to follow Jesus from place to place). So the feeding of the 5000 and the 4000 have a similar and inter-related message about the Messiah being the source of blessing for both the Jews and Gentiles, and as such the two records need to be considered together as one interconnected teaching.
The feeding of the 5000 and the 12 baskets of leftovers point to God’s blessing on the 12 tribes of Israel. Although there were other lessons built into the “12 baskets” of leftovers, such as that if we will feed God’s people we will be blessed ourselves—the 12 apostles fed the multitude and each got a full basket back—it seems the primary meaning is that all Israel will be blessed by the Messiah. There are many pieces of evidence that point to that. For one thing, the feeding of the 5000 is one of the few events in Jesus’ ministry that is recorded in all four Gospels (Matt. 14:13-21; Mark 6:32-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13). That makes sense because God wanted to magnify the fact that His Messiah would provide for Israel.
In the feeding of the 5000, the audience was certainly almost all Jews. They came from the surrounding towns and were familiar with where Jesus was going with his apostles to get some time alone. Then, after he fed them, they were about to come and make him king (John 6:15). Furthermore, there are things in the vocabulary of the feeding of the 5000 that point back to the Pentateuch, and the covenant promises and blessings there. For example, Jesus made the people sit in groups of hundreds and fifties (Mark 6:40; Luke 9:14). This number goes back to the way Israel was governed under the Law, when they had rulers over fifties and hundreds (Ex. 18:25). And under the Law, Israel was promised covenant blessings if they obeyed the Law, which included plenty of food (Deut. 28:4, 5, 8, 11, 12). So the evidence in the accounts, especially when contrasted with the feeding of the 4000, shows that one of the lessons of the 12 baskets of leftovers from the feeding of the 5000 is that the tribes of Israel would be blessed by the Messiah.
The feeding of the 4000 has many things that point to the Messianic blessing on the Gentiles. In contrast to the feeding of the 5000 which occurs in all four Gospels, the feeding of the 4000 only occurs in Matthew and Mark, as if saying that although the Messiah came for Israel, the Gentiles would be blessed in him too. Furthermore, the feeding of the 4000 occurs after Jesus goes to “the region of Tyre and Sidon” (Matt. 15:21). That was Gentile territory, although there would have been some Jews that lived there, which is why he was able to stay in a house there (Mark 7:24). But if Jesus went into the Gentile territory to minister to Jews, there is no record of it. Quite the opposite. The only healing miracle that Jesus did in that Gentile territory was to cast the demon out of a Canaanite woman’s daughter. The fact that the woman is specifically identified as a “Canaanite” (Matt. 15:22) who lived in Syrian Phoenicia (Mark 7:26) is important in tying the feeding of the 4000 to the Messianic blessing of the Gentiles. We have seen how the feeding of the 5000 has connections to the Law, now we will see that the feeding of the 4000 does too. In the Law the Israelites were told that God would “drive out” the seven nations that were in the Promised Land so God could give the land to Israel (Deut. 7:1) and if any Canaanites remained in the land, the Israelites were to destroy them totally (Deut. 7:2). That the only miracle Jesus is recorded as doing in the region of Tyre and Sidon is healing the daughter of a Canaanite is a clear sign that the Messianic blessing is now extended to them through the Messiah, and it is a fulfillment of the prophecy that the Messiah was to be a “light to the Gentiles” (Isa. 42:6; 49:6). When Jesus left the area of Tyre and Sidon, no doubt a group of Gentiles followed him for the same reason crowds of Jews followed him—to hear him and see the miracles he did. But when Jesus left the area, he did not go back to Jewish territory. Mark tells us that he went to the Sea of Galilee and then to its east coast, “the region of the Decapolis,” which was also territory populated by Gentiles (Mark 7:31). There he healed a deaf mute, and the people there spread the word about him (Mark 7:31-37).
By now there would have been a large number of Gentiles following Jesus from the region of Tyre and Sidon and from the Decapolis. He went up onto a mountain and did many healings (Matt. 15:29-31), and they “praised the God of Israel.” That the crowd would “praise the God of Israel” points to the fact that this crowd was not primarily Jews. When Jesus did miracles among the Jews, they “praised God” (cp. Matt. 9:8; Mark 2:12; Luke 13:13; 18:43; etc.). Then, after the healings, Jesus fed the 4000 and took up 7 large baskets full of leftovers. In thinking about the feeding of the 5000 and feeding of the 4000 we see that the record of the feeding of the 5000 has distinctive Jewish elements throughout it, and it makes sense that 12 baskets of leftover bread would point to covenant blessings on the 12 tribes of Israel. Then, the feeding of the 4000 has distinctive Gentile elements, and the 7 baskets of leftover bread harkens back to the seven Gentile nations in Canaan that God drove out before Israel that, along with the other Gentiles, will receive a blessing through God’s Messiah.
“large baskets.” In the feeding of the 5000 (Matt. 14:13-21), the Greek word for “baskets” is kophinos (#2894 κόφινος), a wicker or reed basket. However, in the feeding of the 4000 (Matthew 15:29-39), the Greek word for basket is spuris (#4711 σπυρίς), which refers to a much larger reed or wicker basket, or a woven hamper. It was one of these larger woven baskets that the disciples put Paul into when they let him down from the wall of Damascus (Acts 9:25). Given the size of the different types of baskets, it is possible that there could have been as much food left over from the feeding of the 4000 as there was from the feeding of the 5000.(top)
|Mat 15:38||- (top)|
“Magadan.” Some manuscripts read “Magdala.” It seems that Magadan was contiguous with “Dalmanutha” (Mark 8:10). Magadan also was either Magdala or was included in Magdala. The name “Magdala” is most likely derived from migdal, the Hebrew word for “tower,” and Magdala is located at an important road juncture and so it makes sense that at one time there was a well-fortified tower there. Magdala was the hometown of Mary Magdalene; Mary of Magdala.(top)