Leviticus Chapter 23  PDF  MSWord

Go to Chapter:
|01 |02 |03 |04 |05 |06 |07 |08 |09 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |

Go to verse:
|01 |02 |03 |04 |05 |06 |07 |08 |09 |10 |11 |12 |13 |14 |15 |16 |17 |18 |19 |20 |21 |22 |23 |24 |25 |26 |27 |28 |29 |30 |31 |32 |33 |34 |35 |36 |37 |38 |39 |40 |41 |42 |43 |44 |

Go to Bible: Leviticus 23
 
Lev 23:1(top)
Lev 23:2

“the appointed times of Yahweh.” Yahweh divided up the year by many feasts and Sabbaths (days of rest), and these were designed to help people remember Yahweh and His provision and blessing upon His people. The Hebrew calendar was full of special days, and there were three feasts in which all the males (meaning the males of fighting age; Exod. 23:14, 17; 34:23-24; Deut. 16:16) were to appear before Yahweh (these three feasts are underlined). Although these sabbaths and feasts are mentioned many times in the Bible, below are some important scriptures that describe some requirements of each feast.

Daily Offerings: These were to be offered every day of the year (Num. 28:1-8). When there were other feasts or offerings, the daily offerings were in addition to them.

Weekly Sabbath: This was to be done every Sabbath in addition to the daily offering (Exod. 16:23-29; 20:8-11; 31:13-17; 35:2-3; Lev. 23:3; Deut. 5:12-15.). The specific Sabbath offerings are described in Numbers 28:9-10.

New Moon: This was done at the first sighting of the new moon, indicating a new month (Num. 10:10; 29:6; Ps. 81:3). The specific new moon offerings are stated in Numbers 28:11-15.

Passover: This feast occurs on the fixed date Nisan 14 (Exod. 12:3-11, 43-45; 34:25; Lev. 23:4-5; Num. 9:14; Deut. 16:1-7). The special offering of Passover was the Passover lamb (or goat) itself.

Feast of Unleavened Bread: This feast occurred on Nisan 15-22, directly following Passover (Exod. 12:15-20; 23:15; Lev. 23:6-8; Deut. 16:1-8). The special offerings during the Feast of Unleavened Bread are listed in Numbers 28:17-25.

Pentecost: Pentecost was a one-day feast and it was 50 days after the first regular Sabbath after Passover (Acts 2:1; 20:16; 1 Cor. 16:8). It was also called the “Feast of Harvest” (Exod. 23:16) and the “Feast of Weeks” (Exod. 34:22; Num. 28:26; Deut. 16:10, 16; 2 Chron. 8:13). The special offerings for Pentecost are given in Leviticus 23:15-21 and Numbers 28:26-31.

Rosh Hashanah: The Hebrew “Rosh Hashanah” literally means “head of the year” (from the Hebrew rosh, “head”). This one-day feast occurred on Tishri 1, the beginning of the religious new year (Lev. 23:24-25; Num. 29:1-6). The civil new year began on Nisan 1. The first day of the month Tishri was considered the first day of the year for over 2,500 years, from Adam until the Exodus. At the Exodus, God changed the Jewish calendar and switched it by six months. The seventh month, which had been Nisan (also called Abib), became the first month (Exod. 12:2). That change made the first month (Tishri) become the seventh month (see commentary on Exodus 12:2). Rosh Hashanah was to be a special day of rest and memorialized by blowing shofars, the ram’s horn trumpet, so it became known as the “Feast of Trumpets,” although that name is not in the Bible.

Day of Atonement: Also known as Yom Kippur, this day was on Tishri 10 (Lev. 23:26-27; 16:1-34; esp. v. 29). The specific offerings for this day are given in Numbers 29:7-11. In time, the Jews made this a day of fasting, calling it “The Fast” (Acts 27:9).

Feast of Booths: Also known as the “Feast of Tabernacles” or the “Feast of Ingathering” (Exod. 23:16), this feast occurred on Tishri 15-22—it was an eight-day feast. Special sacrifices for the Feast of Booths are given in Numbers 29:12-28.

The Feast of Dedication: Also known as “Hanukkah” and “The Festival of Lights” (John 10:22). This was an 8-day festival starting on the Kislev 25 and going into the month Tevet (the fourth month from Tishri). It normally falls in our December. It was instituted by Judas Maccabaeus in 167 BC.

Feast of Purim: This feast was celebrated on Adar 14, the last month of the Jewish year (Esther 9:26-32). It was established in Persia during the Babylonian Captivity (c. 500 BC) and normally falls in March.

  (top)
Lev 23:3

“a Sabbath of complete rest.” The Hebrew is shabbath shabbathon, more literally, “a Sabbath of Sabbath observance.” For more information, see commentary on Leviticus 25:4.

God rested on the seventh day in Genesis 2:1-3, but He did not command that anyone follow His example and rest on the seventh day until Exodus 16, when He gave the manna from heaven, and even then He did not fully explain the Sabbath. The Sabbath became part of the Law and the Old Covenant when it was given as part of the Ten Commandments (Exod. 20:8-11).

[For more information on the Sabbath, see commentary on Exod. 20:10.]

  (top)
Lev 23:4(top)
Lev 23:5

“In the first month.” Here in Leviticus 23:4-8 the Bible mentions both the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. This is similar to Deuteronomy 16:1-8, where God treats Passover as if it was part of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Although technically, the Passover was killed on Nisan 14 and the Feast of Unleavened Bread started on Nisan 15, the Passover meal was eaten the evening of Nisan 14 and would typically be a long ceremony and meal that would last past sundown, and sundown started Nisan 15 and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Thus, in actual practice, the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread melded together.

“between the two evenings.” The Passover lamb was killed about 3 p.m. in the afternoon of the fourteenth of Nisan. In Jewish reckoning of days, there were two evenings. There was an early evening when the sun was noticeable as falling in the western sky. In modern terms we today would call that “afternoon,” not “evening.” The later evening was what we today would generally call evening, that is, in the late afternoon but still before sunset. The Passover lamb had to be killed before sunset to be killed on the fourteenth of Nisan because the new day, the fifteenth of Nisan and the Feast of Unleavened Bread started at sunset. So the Passover lamb was killed after the early evening and before the later evening, which traditionally became about 3 p.m.

  (top)
Lev 23:6(top)
Lev 23:7(top)
Lev 23:8(top)
Lev 23:9(top)
Lev 23:10

“then you are to bring the sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest to the priest.” The rabbis disagree on the meaning of this phrase. However, the most likely meaning seems to be that this firstfruits sheaf was brought to the priests at the Tabernacle/Temple the day after the first regular Sabbath that occurred during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. That also seems to be the day that Jesus appeared in the Temple after his resurrection (see commentary on John 20:17).

  (top)
Lev 23:11(top)
Lev 23:12(top)
Lev 23:13(top)
Lev 23:14(top)
Lev 23:15(top)
Lev 23:16(top)
Lev 23:17(top)
Lev 23:18(top)
Lev 23:19(top)
Lev 23:20(top)
Lev 23:21(top)
Lev 23:22

“You are to leave them for the poor.” God has great concern for the poor and disadvantaged. He commands to leave food for the poor in several places (cp. Lev. 19:9-19; 23:22; Deut. 24:19).

  (top)
Lev 23:23(top)
Lev 23:24

“In the seventh month.” The first day of the month Tishri was considered the first day of the year for over 2,500 years, from Adam until the Exodus. At the Exodus, God changed the Jewish calendar and switched it by six months. The seventh month, which had been Nisan (also called Abib), became the first month (Exod. 12:2). That change made the first month (Tishri) become the seventh month (see commentary on Exodus 12:2). The Hebrew “Rosh Hashanah” literally means “head of the year (from the Hebrew rosh, “head”).” This feast occurred on Tishri 1, the beginning of the religious new year (Lev. 23:24-25; Num. 29:1-6). The civil new year began on Nisan 1. Rosh Hashanah was to be a special day of rest and memorialized by blowing shofars, the ram’s horn trumpet, so it became known as the “Feast of Trumpets,” although that name is not in the Bible.

“a memorial.” Some scholars say the shofar blasts and sabbath is so God will remember the people and look favorably upon them, while others say it is for the people to remember God. It is likely for both: the people remember God, and He looks favorably upon their obedience to Him.

“shofar.” The ram’s horn trumpet, not the metal trumpet.

  (top)
Lev 23:25(top)
Lev 23:26(top)
Lev 23:27

“on the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement.” The seventh month is Tishri, and it was originally the first month of the year (see commentary on Exod. 12:2, also see Lev. 23:24).

“you are to afflict your souls.” In the context of the Day of Atonement, which was the tenth day of the seventh month (Nisan calendar) the primary meaning of the phrase “afflict your souls” is to go without food, to fast (see commentary on Lev. 16:29).

  (top)
Lev 23:28(top)
Lev 23:29(top)
Lev 23:30(top)
Lev 23:31(top)
Lev 23:32

“a Sabbath of complete rest.” The Hebrew is shabbath shabbathon, more literally, “a Sabbath of Sabbath observance.” For more information, see commentary on Leviticus 25:4.

“In the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening.” Sunset on the ninth day of the month Tishri started the tenth day of Tishri and the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), which went to sunset the next day. Thus the Day of Atonement went from sunset on the ninth of Tishri to sunset on the tenth of Tishri, one full 24-hour day.

  (top)
Lev 23:33(top)
Lev 23:34(top)
Lev 23:35(top)
Lev 23:36(top)
Lev 23:37(top)
Lev 23:38(top)
Lev 23:39(top)
Lev 23:40

“the fruit of majestic trees.” In this case, the “fruit” (produce) of majestic trees are its branches and boughs.

  (top)
Lev 23:41(top)
Lev 23:42(top)
Lev 23:43(top)
Lev 23:44(top)
  

prev   top   next

 
;