The Book of Exodus  PDF  MSWord

Exodus Chapter 1  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Bible: Exodus 1
Exo 1:1(top)
Exo 1:2(top)
Exo 1:3(top)
Exo 1:4(top)
Exo 1:5

“thigh.” An idiom. The “thigh” is euphemistic for the genital organs, and the idiom “came out of his thigh” refers to his direct descendants (see commentary on Gen. 24:2). [For more information on sexual euphemisms, see commentary on Isa. 47:2].

Exo 1:6(top)
Exo 1:7(top)
Exo 1:8(top)
Exo 1:9

“more numerous and stronger than we are.” Scholars assert that Israel could not have outnumbered the people of Egypt, so this is almost certainly an exaggeration that comes from fear and a desire to control (Keil and Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament; also, Lange’s Commentary on the Holy Scriptures). Some scholars believe Pharaoh was making an excuse to enslave Israel. George Bush (Commentary on Exodus) suggests that perhaps Pharaoh had a specific area in mind in which Israel was more numerous than the Egyptians. In any case, there were not more Israelites than Egyptians in Egypt, and Pharaoh did apparently want to enslave them or he would have just asked them to leave Egypt, and when they did want to leave he would not let them go. It is also possible that the Hebrew text should be understood as, “too many and too might for us” (ESV; JPS; RSV; cp. CJB; NIV, Rotherham, The interpreter’s Bible), which would be a statement made from fear, but not as clearly an exaggeration.

Exo 1:10

“wisely.” The Hebrew is chakam (#02449 חָכַם), and it is a common word for wisdom, to be wise. The Bible makes a distinction between godly wisdom (1 Cor. 1:21) and “worldly wisdom” (1 Cor. 1:20; 3:19). Worldly wisdom may succeed for a while on earth but in the end it will fail; at the Judgment if not before then.

Exo 1:11

“afflict.” The Hebrew is anah (#06031 עָנָה), and it means to make someone busy with something, afflict, to be bowed down or put down, made low, made humble, depressed, downcast. Thus the NLT has “to wear them down.” Pharaoh was worldly wise. The slave drivers did not just give the Israelites work to do, they wore them down and worked to break their spirits. No wonder Egypt was called “the iron furnace” (Deut. 4:20; Jer. 11:4) and the “house of bondage.”

Exo 1:12(top)
Exo 1:13(top)
Exo 1:14

“serve as slaves.” The Hebrew is abad (#05647 עָבַד) and it means to serve, to work, to serve another. In this context it means to serve as a slave (cp. ESV).

Exo 1:15(top)
Exo 1:16(top)
Exo 1:17(top)
Exo 1:18(top)
Exo 1:19(top)
Exo 1:20(top)
Exo 1:21(top)
Exo 1:22

“the river.” That is, the Nile.


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