2 Samuel Chapter 19  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Bible: 2 Samuel 19
 
2Sa 19:1(top)
2Sa 19:2(top)
2Sa 19:3

“stole...steal.” People who flee from battle steal away from the battle and steal back into their city, and that is how the people were behaving now, sneaking into the city as if they were cowardly retreating there for safety instead of engaging in the battle.

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2Sa 19:4(top)
2Sa 19:5

“and the lives of your concubines.” David had left ten concubines behind in Jerusalem, but had more, as this verse says.

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2Sa 19:6(top)
2Sa 19:7

“to comfort your servants.” The Hebrew is more literally, “upon the heart,” but that is an idiom which means to speak kindly or to comfort someone (cp. Isa. 40:2).

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2Sa 19:8(top)
2Sa 19:9(top)
2Sa 19:10(top)
2Sa 19:11(top)
2Sa 19:12

“Why then are you the last to bring back the king?” This very likely has Messianic application, because 11 of the Twelve Apostles were Galileans, not Judeans, although Jesus was from Judah, and it is most likely that Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus, was from Judah.

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2Sa 19:13

“And say to Amasa.” David’s choice of Amasa, who had been the commander of Absalom’s army, over Joab who had been faithful to him, is shocking. It has been suggested that perhaps David thought that the people of Israel who supported Absalom would more readily support David if Amasa was his general, but what about the people who had been faithful to David in fighting Absalom? They would no doubt feel betrayed. This choice is hard to understand.

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2Sa 19:14

“And he turned.” Who the “he” refers to is not stated in the text. It could be David or Amasa.

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2Sa 19:15

“returned and came to the Jordan.” Interestingly, this path from north to south on the east side of the Jordan River was the same path Jesus took in his last journey from Galilee to Jerusalem, crossing at Jericho and then going up to Jerusalem.

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2Sa 19:16(top)
2Sa 19:17(top)
2Sa 19:18

“And they crossed.” The Hebrew text has “and she crossed,” but that does not make sense in the context, and the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Aramaic Targum have “they,” which is almost certainly correct (cp. ESV; NASB; NET; NIV; RSV).

“as he was crossing over the Jordan.” Here it seems that the king and his household were crossing, and it would have been that as soon as David himself got across, and while his household was still crossing, Shimei quickly fell down before David to plead for his life.

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2Sa 19:19

“impute sin...sinfully did.” The words “sin” and “sinfully” are from the same Hebrew root. Here, in an interesting way, Shimei asks David to not hold his sin against him, but at the same time admits that he sinned against David. Also, the word translated “impute” is more literally to think or consider. Shimei asks David not to consider him a sinner even though he admits he is one.

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2Sa 19:20(top)
2Sa 19:21(top)
2Sa 19:22

“adversary.” This is the Hebrew word “satan” from which we get the name of the Devil: Satan.

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2Sa 19:23

“You will not die.” David did not kill Shimei, but told Solomon to kill him once David was dead (1 Kings 2:8-9).

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2Sa 19:24

“son of Saul.” Mephibosheth was the grandson of Saul, but Hebrew does not have a word for grandson.

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2Sa 19:25(top)
2Sa 19:26

“saddled.” The “saddle” that we have today, complete with stirrups, was a late invention, after the time of Christ. People rode donkeys and horses on blankets like the American Indians did.

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2Sa 19:27

“the king is as an angel of God.” This does not mean, like the American idiom, that David is sweet or nice. It means that David represents God and has wide ranging knowledge, so David would know the truth of what happened.

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2Sa 19:28(top)
2Sa 19:29

“you and Ziba divide the land.” This record about Mephibosheth and Ziba is one of the enigmatic records in the life of David. It seems clear from the information we are given that Ziba lied, and yet David rewarded Ziba with half of what had belonged to Saul. There is more to this record than appears in the text, and we do not have all the details. It may be that David thought Mephibosheth could have made more of an effort to go with him, or that David felt a little indebted to Ziba for supporting him when he left Jerusalem.

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2Sa 19:30

“Let him take it all.” Mephibosheth is speaking hyperbolically to honor the king, but will take half the land as David decided. See a similar hyperbole in Genesis 23:11 when Abraham was purchasing the burial cave for his wife Sarah.

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2Sa 19:31

“Rogelim.” A city in the Transjordan. Here Barzillai shows his loyalty to David again (cp. 2 Sam. 17:27).

“to send him off at the Jordan.” Barzillai did not cross the Jordan himself, but sent David home across the Jordan.

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2Sa 19:32(top)
2Sa 19:33(top)
2Sa 19:34

“are the days of the years of my life.” Barzillai seems to be counting every day.

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2Sa 19:35

“Can I discern between good and bad?” This is a general statement and is clarified and elucidated in the next statements.

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2Sa 19:36

“Your servant will just go a little way over the Jordan.” The Hebrew text can also be translated that Barzillai said that he could just barely get over the Jordan River. For example, the translation by Robert Alter is, “Your servant can just barely cross over the Jordan.” But given that he speaks of getting a reward from the king for what he is doing, the common translation is more likely correct.

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2Sa 19:37(top)
2Sa 19:38(top)
2Sa 19:39(top)
2Sa 19:40

“crossed over to Gilgal.” So David traveled down the east side of the Jordan until he was across from Gilgal, just as Jesus did before he went up the Jericho Road to Jerusalem in the weeks before he was crucified. The eastern side of the Jordan has more water to drink and is a little flatter than the western side of the Jordan.

“and also half the people of Israel.” This is an indication that not all the people of the northern tribes were excited about having David back as king, and sure enough, in the next chapter, 2 Samuel 20, there is another revolt against David among the northern tribes.

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2Sa 19:41

“all the men of Israel.” That is, all the ones who were there.

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2Sa 19:42

“is a close relative to me.” The men of Judah are speaking as one man, and saying “me.”

“eaten, yes, eaten.” The Hebrew text uses the figure of speech polyptoton, in which the word “eaten” is used twice (see commentary on Gen. 2:16).

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2Sa 19:43

“I have ten shares.” Israel is speaking as one man, saying “I.” not “we.” Also, literally, “ten shares” is “ten hands,” but the meaning is ten shares.

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