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Go to Bible: 2 Kings 15
“In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam.” There are eight kings mentioned in this chapter.
“Azariah son of Amaziah.” Azariah is also called “Uzziah” in the Bible.(top)
|2Ki 15:2||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:3||- (top)|
“at the local shrines.” The Hebrew word “shrines” is bamot, which referred to a place that was leveled and built up and on which were placed various idols and objects of worship. Many of the towns had such shrines (see commentary on Num. 33:52).(top)
“Yahweh struck the king so that he was a leper.” The reason is covered in 2 Chronicles 26:16-21.
“a separate house.” It is possible that the house can be “the Separate House,” the name people gave to the house the king lived in.
“Over the House.” That is, ruling over the palace and royal family. The fact that Jothan was judging the people of the land shows he was acting as king. The phrase “Over the House” was an official title (see commentary on 1 Kings 4:6). Jotham took over the ruling of the kingdom as co-regent when his father could no longer go out and be with the public.(top)
“written in the Book of the Chronicles.” See 2 Chronicles 26.(top)
|2Ki 15:7||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:8||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:9||- (top)|
“in the presence of the people.” There is an Aramaic term at this point in the Hebrew text for “in the presence of” (or simply, “before”), which some scholars find problematic and assume is a late addition to the text, and thus they prefer to follow Lucian’s Greek version and thus read “at Ibleam.” Although there is no clear reason why an Aramaic term might appear here in the text, there is no clear reason to think it was not original.(top)
|2Ki 15:11||- (top)|
“the word of Yahweh that he spoke to Jehu.” See 2 Kings 10:30 for the prophecy to Jehu.(top)
“one month of days.” The Hebrew text is more literally, “a moon of days.” There is no ambiguity about the length of the reign of Shallum, you can count the days. A lunar month was usually 29 days.(top)
“the son of Gadi.” This phrase may refer to him being from the tribe of Gad. Or, “Gadi” might be the actual name.
“struck down Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria and killed him.” There is no doubt in the text that Gadi killed King Shallum.(top)
|2Ki 15:15||- (top)|
“Tiphsah.” This is a city in the far north, in Syria. This is unlikely, so many scholars suggest other, more likely cities. The Septuagint reads “Tappuah,” and some versions adopt that reading.
“and its territory.” A powerful town would control the territory around it, and draw support from the people in that territory. The ancient versions differ as to the names of the towns. For example, the Septuagint text has Tirzah instead of Tiphsah, and thus has Tirzah twice.
“and he split open all the women in it who were pregnant.” Tyrants are generally cold and heartless, and use horrific methods to produce fear in people and thus control them.(top)
|2Ki 15:17||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:18||- (top)|
“to hold the kingdom in his own hand.” To hold power in Israel at Menahem’s time was not easy, as we can see by the number of times the king was killed and replaced. So Menahem turned to Assyria to help him hold on to the kingdom. Also, Assyria itself was also a threat, so paying them money paid them off so they would not attack Manahem. Eventually they attacked Israel anyway (cp. 2 Kings 17).(top)
“all the mighty men of wealth." An idiom for all the very wealthy men.(top)
|2Ki 15:21||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:22||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:23||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:24||- (top)|
“in the stronghold of the king’s house.” This refers to the fortified part of the king’s palace.
“with Argob and Arieh.” Most likely two well-known warriors.
“with Argob and Arieh; and with him were fifty men of the Gileadites.” This was a well-organized conspiracy with anchor people coming from the Transjordan.(top)
|2Ki 15:26||- (top)|
“In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah.” Azariah reigned 52 years, so this is his last year as king.(top)
|2Ki 15:28||- (top)|
“Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, came and captured.” This is the first verse that mentions the Assyrian attack on northern Israel. They came south into Israel from Baqa Valley which towards the south becomes the Hulah Valley (cp. Bill Schlegel, The Satellite Bible Atlas, map 7-5, p. 95). Eventually the Assyrians left army contingents in cities that they captured. The Assyrians had their eye on controlling the trade routes to Egypt, and a later Assyrian king even had designs on conquering Egypt, and did conquer it into Upper Egypt (Satellite Bible Atlas, map 7-4, p. 93).(top)
“struck him and killed him, and reigned in his place.” The fact that Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria had conquered much of Israel but then went home validates what was written in the Assyrian annals from the time of Tiglath-Pileser, that he placed Hoshea on the throne and took back to Assyria ten talents of gold and 1,000 talents of silver. Tiglath-Pileser had Hoshea as a vassal king over Israel and received yearly tribute from him. This lasted through the reign of Tiglath-Pileser, and then Hoshea revolted during the reign of the next king of Assyria, Shalmanezzar (2 Kings 17:3).(top)
|2Ki 15:31||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:32||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:33||- (top)|
|2Ki 15:34||- (top)|
“the local shrines.” The Hebrew word “shrines” is bamot, which referred to a place that was leveled and built up and on which were placed various idols and objects of worship. Many of the towns had such shrines (see commentary on Num. 33:52).
“He built the Upper Gate of the house of Yahweh.” Jotham built the northern gate in the wall of the “house of Yahweh,” the Temple, which was also called “the gate of Benjamin” (Jer. 20:2; Ezek. 9:2) because being on the north of the Temple, it led out in the direction of the tribe of Benjamin. This was not the northern gate in the city wall, but the northern gate in the wall surrounding the Temple. It was called “the upper gate” because the Temple was not on perfectly flat ground, but the northern wall was a little bit higher up in elevation than the rest of the Temple.(top)
|2Ki 15:36||- (top)|
“In those days.” This is actually going back in history and is a summary statement, summing up some of the things that happened during the rule of the previous king. For example, Pekah was killed in 2 Kings 15:30.
“Pekah the son of Remaliah.” Pekah was the king of Israel, so at that time Israel and Syria were both attacking Judah. By the time of Ahaz, Syria and Israel were allies and were working together to fight Judah (Isa. 7:1).
“against Israel.” The attack of Syria and Israel against Judah occurred before Assyria attacked Israel, which is recorded in 2 Kings 15:29.(top)
|2Ki 15:38||- (top)|