1 Samuel Chapter 17  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Bible: 1 Samuel 17
1Sa 17:1

“Ephes-dammim.” A place about 16 miles (25 km) southwest of Jerusalem; the name means “Edge of blood” or “Edge of Dammim.”

1Sa 17:2(top)
1Sa 17:3

“the hills.” Although the Hebrew word is singular, it can be used as a collective, and the armies were not just on the top of one “hill” but were spread out over the hills.

1Sa 17:4

“champion.” The Hebrew word is unique and idiomatic, and could be translated, “man of the between.”

“the camps of the Philistines.” The Philistine army was spread out over the hill, and so is said to be in “camps.”

“six cubits and a span.” That is roughly nine feet, nine inches tall. We should note that the Septuagint, a Dead Sea Scroll and Josephus say “four cubits” instead of six, but there is no reason to reduce the number in the Hebrew text.

1Sa 17:5(top)
1Sa 17:6

“greaves.” The technical term for armor that covers the lower leg, especially the shin. ‚Äč

1Sa 17:7(top)
1Sa 17:8(top)
1Sa 17:9

“then will we be your servants.” A hollow promise, because when David killed Goliath the Philistines ran away and remained enemies of Israel. Evil people make hollow promises, and the wise believer needs to be aware of that and not get fooled.

1Sa 17:10(top)
1Sa 17:11

“they were dismayed and greatly afraid.” The man the Israelites chose to lead them in battle is afraid.

1Sa 17:12

“that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah.” That is, “that Ephrathite” was the one in chapter 16 whose son helped Saul.

1Sa 17:13

“they had gone...had gone after Saul.” The Hebrew text doubles the verb “had gone” for emphasis. Jesse’s three oldest sons had gone to fight the Philistines and Jesse was worried about them so he sent David to find out how they were doing.

“and the name of his three sons.” The Hebrew word “name” is singular, and is distributive in 1 Samuel 17:13, and refers to each of the three sons.

1Sa 17:14(top)
1Sa 17:15(top)
1Sa 17:16(top)
1Sa 17:17

“these ten loaves.” The Hebrew uses the collective singular: “this ten bread.”

1Sa 17:18(top)
1Sa 17:19

“because Saul.” 1 Samuel 17:19 is a continuation of Jessie’s talking with David (cp. E. Fox, The Schoken Bible; David Tsumura, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament: The First Book of Samuel).

1Sa 17:20(top)
1Sa 17:21(top)
1Sa 17:22(top)
1Sa 17:23(top)
1Sa 17:24(top)
1Sa 17:25

“Have you seen.” The “you” is plural, “Have you all seen…?”

“king will enrich him with great riches.” Saul now has to bribe people to fight, whereas warriors who trusted Yahweh would normally step forward on their own to defend Yahweh’s honor.

1Sa 17:26(top)
1Sa 17:27

“That is what.” This refers back to what had been said in 1 Samuel 17:25.

1Sa 17:28(top)
1Sa 17:29

“question.” The Hebrew is “word,” but here it refers to David’s asking a question.

1Sa 17:30(top)
1Sa 17:31

“and he sent for him.” The Hebrew is more abrupt and forceful; “and he took him.”

1Sa 17:32(top)
1Sa 17:33(top)
1Sa 17:34

“flock...flock.” The Hebrew uses two different words that mean “flock,” and can be a mixed flock of sheep and goats.

1Sa 17:35(top)
1Sa 17:36(top)
1Sa 17:37

“paw.” The Hebrew is just the word “hand.”

“Go, and may Yahweh be with you.” The Hebrew can also be, “Go, and Yahweh will be with you.”

1Sa 17:38(top)
1Sa 17:39(top)
1Sa 17:40

“out of the brook.” Normally the “brook” that runs through the Valley of Elah is dry, so this is just a dry streambed.

“And he drew near to the Philistine.” Although the distance between David and Goliath was not known, it would have been quite close, perhaps 15-20 yards.

1Sa 17:41(top)
1Sa 17:42(top)
1Sa 17:43(top)
1Sa 17:44

“the birds of the air.” The Hebrew is literally, “the birds of the heavens,” but the Hebrew word “heavens” is always plural, there is no singular word “heaven” in Hebrew.

“and to the animals of the field.” In a culture where family ties were strong and family tombs common, to not have anyone bury your dead body was considered a terrible curse. In fact, many people believed (falsely, but it was a very widely held belief) that a proper burial was important for a comfortable existence in the afterlife. Thus the threat of not being buried but having one’s dead body eaten by animals, birds, and vermin was a horrifying threat of unspeakable loneliness and rejection, both on this earth and in the afterlife (see commentary on Jer. 14:16).

1Sa 17:45

“I come to you in the name.” The Hebrew text has “with,” using the same preposition as that Goliath came to David “with” physical weapons. David came to Goliath “with” the name of Yahweh, but in English we say “in” the name of Yahweh.

1Sa 17:46

“the birds of the air.” The Hebrew is literally, “the birds of the heavens,” but the Hebrew word “heavens” is always plural, there is no singular word “heaven” in Hebrew.

1Sa 17:47

“he will give all of you.” The “you” is plural. David is referring to all the Philistines.

1Sa 17:48(top)
1Sa 17:49

“and he fell on his face to the earth.” Goliath would not get into a posture of submission in his life, but he did so at his death.

1Sa 17:50(top)
1Sa 17:51(top)
1Sa 17:52(top)
1Sa 17:53(top)
1Sa 17:54

“and brought it to Jerusalem.” This is a summary statement; David did not go to Jerusalem for a while. At this time David had not even conquered the Jebusite city of Jerusalem yet. David was still mainly living in Bethlehem at this time.

1Sa 17:55

“When Saul saw.” The Septuagint does not have 1 Samuel 17:55-58,

1Sa 17:56

“young man.” This is a rarely used word for a young man.

1Sa 17:57(top)
1Sa 17:58(top)

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