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Go to Commentary on Ruth 1
Naomi’s Family in Moab

1And it came to pass in the days when the judges judged that there was a famine in the land, so a man of Bethlehem Judah went to live in the country of Moab; he and his wife and his two sons.
  2The name of the man was Elimelech and the name of his wife was Naomi and the names of his two sons were Mahlon and Chilion; they were Ephrathites of Bethlehem Judah. And they came into the country of Moab and they stayed there.
  3Then Elimelech, Naomi’s husband, died. And she was left; she and her two sons,
  4and they took wives for themselves of the women of Moab; the name of the one was Orpah and the name of the other was Ruth. And they lived there about ten years.
  5But Mahlon and Chilion both died, so the woman was left without her two children and her husband.

Ruth's Loyalty to Naomi

6Then she arose with her daughters-in-law in order to return from the country of Moab, for in the country of Moab she had heard that Yahweh had visited his people by giving them bread.
  7So she set out from the place where she was, and her two daughters-in-law with her, and they went on the road to return to the land of Judah.

8And Naomi said to her two daughters-in-law, “Go, each of you return to the house of her mother. May Yahweh show faithful love to you, just as you have shown to the dead and to me.
  9May Yahweh grant you that you find rest, each of you in the house of her husband.” Then she kissed them, and they lifted up their voice and wept.

10And they said to her, “No, we will return with you to your people.”

11But Naomi said, “Go back, my daughters! Why would you go with me? Do I still have sons in my gut that they could be your husbands?
  12Go back, my daughters! Go your way, for I am too old to have a husband. If I were to say, ‘I have hope,’ and even have a husband tonight and also bear sons,
  13would you therefore wait until they were grown? Would you therefore refrain from having husbands? No, my daughters! For life is bitter for me, too much for you, for the hand of Yahweh has gone out against me.

14They lifted up their voice and wept again, and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, but Ruth clung to her.
  15And Naomi said, “Behold, your sister-in-law has gone back to her people and to her god. Go back after your sister-in-law.”

16But Ruth said, “Do not press me to abandon you or to return from following after you! For where you go, I will go, and where you lodge, I will lodge; your people are my people, and your God is my God;
  17where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. Yahweh do so to me, and more also, if anything but death parts you and me.”

18When she saw that she was determined to go with her, she said no more to her.

Naomi and Ruth Return

19So the two of them went on until they came to Bethlehem. And it came to pass when they came to Bethlehem that the whole city was astir about them, and the women said, “Is this Naomi?”

20She said to them, “Do not call me Naomi.a Call me Mara,b for the Almighty has dealt very bitterly with me.
  21I went out full and Yahweh has brought me home again empty. Why do you call me Naomi, since Yahweh has testified against me and the Almighty has afflicted me?”

22So Naomi returned, and Ruth the Moabitess her daughter-in-law who returned with her out of the country of Moab. And they came to Bethlehem in the beginning of barley harvest.

“Naomi” means “Pleasant”
“Mara” means “bitter”

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Go to Commentary on Ruth 2
Ruth Meets Boaz

1Now Naomi had a relative of her husband, a man of noble character of the family of Elimelech, and his name was Boaz.
  2And Ruth the Moabitess said to Naomi, “Please let me go into the field and glean among the ears of grain behind him in whose eyes I find favor.” And she said to her, “Go, my daughter.”
  3So she went, and came and gleaned in the field after the reapers. And she happened to come onto the allotted portion of the field belonging to Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech.

4And behold, Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, “Yahweh be with you.” And they answered him, “Yahweh bless you.”
  5Then Boaz said to his young man who was set over the reapers, “Whose young woman is this?”
  6The young man who was set over the reapers answered and said, “She is the Moabite woman who returned with Naomi from the country of Moab,
  7and she said, ‘Please let me glean and gather among the sheaves behind the reapers.’ So she came and has continued from the morning until now. She has been sitting a little while in the shelter.”

8Then Boaz said to Ruth, “Listen carefully, my daughter. Do not go to glean in another field, and do not go from here, but stay here close to my young women.
  9Let your eyes be on the field that they reap, and go after them. Have I not commanded the young men not to touch you? When you are thirsty, go to the vessels and drink from that which the young men have drawn.”

10Then she fell on her face and bowed herself down on the ground and said to him, “Why have I found favor in your eyes, that you should take notice of me, since I am a foreigner?”

11And Boaz answered her, “It has been told, yes, told to me all that you have done for your mother-in-law since the death of your husband, and how you have left your father and your mother and the land of your birth and have come to a people that you did not know before.
  12May Yahweh repay your work and a full reward be given to you from Yahweh, the God of Israel, under whose wings you have come to take refuge.”

13Then she said, “Let me find favor in your eyes, my lord, because you have comforted me and because you have spoken to the heart of your servant, though I do not have the standing of one of your female servants.”

14And at mealtime Boaz said to her, “Come here and eat of the bread and dip your piece of bread in the wine-vinegar.” So she sat beside the reapers and he passed roasted grain to her, and she ate and was satisfied, and had some left over.

15And when she got up to glean, Boaz commanded his young men, saying, “Let her glean even among the sheaves and do not reproach her.
  16And pull out, yes, pull out some for her from the bundles and leave it for her to glean, and do not rebuke her.”
  17So she gleaned in the field until evening, then she beat out what she had gleaned, and it was about an ephah of barley.
  18And she picked it up and went into the city and her mother-in-law saw what she had gleaned. She also brought out and gave to her what she had left over after she was satisfied.

19Then her mother-in-law said to her, “Where have you gleaned today? Where have you worked? May the one who took notice of you be blessed!” And she told her mother-in-law with whom she had worked and said, “The name of the man with whom I worked today is Boaz.”

20Then Naomi said to her daughter-in-law, “Blessed of Yahweh be the one who has not forsaken his covenant-faithfulness to the living and to the dead.” And Naomi said to her, “The man is a close relative to us, one of our kinsmen-redeemers.”

21And Ruth the Moabitess said, “He also said to me, ‘You should stay close to my young men until they have finished all my harvest.’”

22And Naomi said to Ruth her daughter-in-law, “It is good, my daughter, that you go out with his young women so that others will not harm you in another field.”
  23So she stayed close to Boaz’s young women in order to glean until the end of barley harvest and of wheat harvest, and she lived with her mother-in-law.

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Go to Commentary on Ruth 3
Ruth and Boaz at the Threshing Floor

1And Naomi her mother-in-law said to her, “My daughter, should I not seek rest for you, that it may be well with you?
  2Now is not Boaz, whose young women you were with, our relative? Look, he is winnowing barley tonight on the threshing floor.
  3So wash yourself, anoint yourself, put on your nice garment, and go down to the threshing floor, but do not make yourself known to the man until he has finished eating and drinking.
  4Then, when he lies down you are to note the place where he is lying, and you are to go and uncover his feet and lie down; then he will tell you what you are to do.”

5And she said to her, “All that you say I will do.”
  6So she went down to the threshing floor and did according to all that her mother-in-law commanded her.
  7When Boaz had eaten and drunk and his heart was merry, he went to lie down at the edge of the heap of grain. Then she came silently, uncovered his feet and laid down.

8And it came to pass at midnight that the man trembled and turned himself, and behold, a woman was lying at his feet.
  9So he said, “Who are you?” And she answered, “I am Ruth your servant. Please spread the wing of your cloak over your servant, because you are a kinsman-redeemer.”

10Then he said, “May you be blessed by Yahweh, my daughter! You have shown more devotion at the end than at the beginning in that you did not go after young men, whether poor or rich.
  11Now, my daughter, do not be afraid. I will do for you all that you say, for all the gate of my peoplea knows that you are a woman of noble character.
  12Now it is true that I am a kinsman-redeemer, but there also is a kinsman-redeemer nearer than I.
  13Stay here tonight, and in the morning if he will be for you a kinsman-redeemer, good, let him redeem you. But if he will not redeem you, then as Yahweh lives, I will be a kinsman-redeemer for you. Lie down until the morning.”

14So she lay at his feet until the morning. She rose up before one could recognize another. And he said, “It must not be known that the woman came to the threshing floor.”
  15And he said, “Bring the cloak that you are wearing and hold it tightly.” She held it and he measured six measures of barley and laid it on her, and he went into the city.

16When she came to her mother-in-law, she said, “How did it go, my daughter?” And she told her all that the man had done for her.
  17And she said, “He gave me these six measures of barley, for he said, ‘Do not go empty-handed to your mother-in-law.’”

18Then she said, “Sit still, my daughter, until you know how the matter turns out, for the man will not rest until he has settled the matter today.”

“gate” is a metonymy for the people at the gate

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Go to Commentary on Ruth 4
Boaz Redeems Ruth

1Now Boaz went up to the city gate, and sat down there. And behold, the kinsman-redeemer of whom Boaz spoke came by, to whom he said, “Turn aside, friend, and sit down here.” He turned aside and sat down.
  2Then he took ten men of the elders of the city and said, “Sit down here.” And they sat down.
  3Then he said to the kinsman-redeemer, “Naomi, who has come back from the country of Moab, is selling the parcel of land that was our brother Elimelech’s.
  4I thought to inform you of it, saying, ‘Buy it in the presence of those who are sitting here, and in the presence of the elders of my people.’ If you will redeem it, redeem it, but if you will not redeem it, then tell me, so that I know. For there is no one to redeem it besides you, and I am after you.” And he said, “I will redeem it.”

5Then Boaz said, “On the day you buy the field from the hand of Naomi, you buy it also from Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead on his inheritance.”

6Then the kinsman-redeemer said, “I cannot serve as the kinsman-redeemer for myself, lest I ruin my own inheritance. Take my right of redemption for yourself, for I cannot serve as kinsman-redeemer.”

7Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm any matter: a man took off his sandal and gave it to his neighbor, and this was the way of attesting a transaction in Israel.

8So the kinsman-redeemer said to Boaz, “Buy it for yourself,” and he took off his sandal.

9And Boaz said to the elders and to all the people, “You are witnesses this day that I have bought all that was Elimelech’s and all that was Chilion’s and Mahlon’s from the hand of Naomi.
  10And also, Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, I have purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead on his inheritance, so that the name of the dead is not cut off from among his brothers and from the gate of his place. You are witnesses this day.”

11All the people who were at the gate, and the elders, said, “We are witnesses! May Yahweh make the woman who has come into your house like Rachel and like Leah, the two who built the house of Israel, and may you do worthily in Ephrathah and be famous in Bethlehem.
  12May your house be like the house of Perez whom Tamar bore to Judah, from the seed that Yahweh will give you from this young woman.”

Ruth and Boaz Marry

13So Boaz took Ruth, and she became his wife. And he went to her and Yahweh gave her conception, and she bore a son,
  14and the women said to Naomi, “Blessed be Yahweh who has not left you this day without a kinsman-redeemer, and may his name be famous in Israel.
  15He will be to you a restorer of life and sustain you in your old age, for your daughter-in-law who loves you, who is better to you than seven sons, has given birth to him.”
  16And Naomi took the child and laid it in her bosom and became a nurse to it.
  17The women, her neighbors, gave him a name, saying, “There is a son born to Naomi,” and they named him Obed. He is the father of Jesse, the father of David.

David’s Genealogy from Perez, the Son of Judah

18Now these are the generations of Perez: Perez was the father of Hezron,
  19and Hezron was the father of Ram, and Ram was the father of Amminadab,
  20and Amminadab was the father of Nahshon, and Nahshon was the father of Salmon,
  21and Salmon was the father of Boaz, and Boaz was the father of Obed,
  22and Obed was the father of Jesse, and Jesse was the father of David.

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