“Jacob’s trouble.” “Jacob’s trouble” in this context is the period of the Day of the LORD, also known as the Great Tribulation, that will come upon Israel and the earth for all the sin they have committed. That Israel will suffer greatly is why Jeremiah refers to the time as “Jacob’s trouble.” Although Israel and the earth will suffer great tribulation, some of the people both of Israel and the nations will survive and be allowed into the future kingdom of Christ on earth at the “Sheep and Goat Judgment” (Matt. 25:31-46). [For more on the prophecies of the Great Tribulation, see commentary on Isaiah 13:9. For more on the Sheep and Goat Judgment, see commentary on Matt. 25:32. For more on the future kingdom of Christ on earth, see Appendix 3, “Christ’s Future Kingdom on Earth”].