“And Judah is unruly against God.” The last sentences in Hosea 11:12 have been taken in totally different directions by the translators: that Judah is faithful to God (cp. CJB; ESV; NET; NLT), or that Judah is not faithful to God (cp. JPS; NASB; NIV). The historic evidence from Hosea and the historic books of the Bible is that Judah was not faithful to God. Although many translators have been influenced by Hosea 1:7, that verse does not say Judah was faithful to God, only that God would rescue Judah, which He did when the Assyrians attacked. But Judah is shown to be unfaithful to God in Hosea (cp. Hos. 5:12-13; 6:4, 10-11; 8:14; 10:11; 12:2), so it would be incongruous for Hosea 11:12 to suddenly say Judah had been faithful. The translation of Hosea by Francis Anderson and David Noel Freedman in The Anchor Bible: Hosea, sees the text as saying Judah is faithful, but not to God. Their translation reads, “Judah still wanders with the holy gods. He is faithful to the holy gods.” In other words, Judah is faithful to idol gods, not God.