The Book of Genesis  PDF  MSWord
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Genesis Chapter 1  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 1
The Creation

1In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

2And the earth was formless and empty, and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters.

3God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.
  4And God saw the light, that it was good. And God separated the light from the darkness.
  5And God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

6And God said, “Let there be an expanse in the middle of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.”
  7And God made the expanse and separated the waters that were under the expanse from the waters that were above the expanse; and it was so.
  8And God called the expanse “heaven.” And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.

9And God said, “Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together to one place, and let the dry land appear,” and it was so.
  10And God called the dry land “earth” and the gathering together of the waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good.

11God said, “Let the earth sprout forth vegetation, plants seeding forth seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit with its seed in it, according to their kind, on the earth,” and it was so.
  12And the earth brought forth vegetation, plants seeding forth seed according to their kind, and trees bearing fruit with its seed in it according to their kind; and God saw that it was good.
  13And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.

14And God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years;
  15and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth,” and it was so.
  16God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night; he made the stars also.
  17And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth
  18and to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good.
  19And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.

20And God said, “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living souls, and let birds fly above the earth in the open expanse of the heavens.”
  21And God created the large sea creatures and every living soul that moves, with which the waters swarmed, according to their kind, and every winged bird after its kind. And God saw that it was good.
  22And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.”
  23And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.

24And God said, “Let the earth produce living souls according to their kind—livestock and creeping things and wild animals of the earth according to their kind.” And it was so.
  25And God made the wild animals of the earth according to their kind and the livestock according to their kind, and every creeping thing according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.

26And God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the ground.”

27So God created the man in his own image. In the image of God he created him. Male and female he created them.

28And God blessed them. And God said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, fill the earth and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the heavens and over every living thing that moves on the earth.”
  29And God said, “Behold, I have given youa every herb seeding forth seed that is on the surface of all the earth, and every tree that bears fruit yielding seed. It will be your food.
  30And to every animal of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that crawls on the ground in which is living soul, I have given every green herb for food.” And it was so.

31And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, a sixth day.

The “you” is plural.

Genesis Chapter 2  top  PDF  MSWord

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1And the heavens and the earth were finished; even all their army.
  2On the seventh day God finished his work that he had made, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had made.
  3God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all his work that he had created and made.

Man and Woman in the Garden

4This is the history of the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Yahweh God made the earth and the heavens.

5No plant of the field was yet in the earth and no herb of the field had yet sprung up–for Yahweh God had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground,
  6but a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground–
  7Yahweh God formed man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.

8Yahweh God planted a garden in the east, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.
  9Out of the ground Yahweh God made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the middle of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

10A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it was parted and became four heads.
  11The name of the first is Pishon; this is the one that flows through the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.
  12And the gold of that land is good. Aromatic resin and the onyx stone are there also.
  13The name of the second river is Gihon, the same river that flows through the whole land of Cush.
  14The name of the third river is Hiddekel; this is the one that flows in front of Assyria. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

15Yahweh God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to work it and to care for it.
  16Yahweh God commanded the man, saying, “Of every tree of the garden you may eat, yes, eat,
  17but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you must not eat of it, for in the day that you eat of it you will die, yes, die.”

18Yahweh God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him.”
  19Out of the ground Yahweh God formed every animal of the field and every bird of the heavens and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called each living soul, that was its name.
  20The man gave names to all livestock, and to the birds of the heavens and to every animal of the field; but for man there was not found a helper suitable for him.
  21Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to fall on the man, and he slept, and he took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh in its place.
  22He made the rib that Yahweh God had taken from the man into a woman and brought her to the man.
  23The man said, “This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. She will be called ‘woman,’ because she was taken out of man.”

24This is why a man will leave his father and his mother and will join with his wife, and they will be one flesh.
  25They were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.

Genesis Chapter 3  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 3
The Temptation and the Fall

1Now the serpent was more crafty than any animal of the field that Yahweh God had made. He said to the woman, “Has God really said, ‘You must not eat of any tree of the garden?’”

2The woman said to the serpent, “Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat,
  3but of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You must not eat from it, neither must you touch it, lest you die.’”

4The serpent said to the woman, “No! You will not ‘die, yes, die.’
  5for God knows that in the day you eat it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”
  6When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, and she gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate.
  7The eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked, so they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves loin coverings.

Sin’s Consequences

8They heard the sound of Yahweh God walking around in the garden at the time of the evening breeze, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Yahweh God among the trees of the garden.
  9Then Yahweh God called to the man and said to him, “Where are you?”

10The man said, “I heard the sound of you in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid myself.”

11God said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

12The man said, “The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and I ate.”

13Yahweh God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” The woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.”

14Yahweh God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, you are cursed above all livestock and above every animal of the field. On your belly you will go, and you will eat dust all the days of your life.
  15I will put hostility between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed. He will bruise your head, and you will bruise his heel.”

16To the woman he said, “I will multiply, yes, multiply your pain in childbirth. In pain you will bear children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you.”

17To Adam he said, “Because you have listened to your wife’s voice and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You must not eat of it,’ Cursed is the ground for your sake. In toil you will eat from it all the days of your life.
  18It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field.
  19By the sweat of your face you will eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. For you are dust, and to dust you will return.”

20Adam called his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all living.
  21Yahweh God made coats of skins for Adam and for his wife and clothed them.

22Yahweh God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. Now, lest he reach out his hand and also take of the tree of life and eat, and live forever–”
  23Therefore Yahweh God sent him out from the garden of Eden to till the ground from which he was taken.
  24So he drove out the man, and he placed the cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden—with the flaming sword that was turning in every direction—to guard the way to the tree of life.

Genesis Chapter 4  top  PDF  MSWord

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Cain Murders Abel

1The man knew Eve his wife. She conceived and gave birth to Cain and said, “I have gotten a man with Yahweh’s help.”
  2Again she gave birth, to Cain’s brother Abel. Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
  3And it happened in the course of time that Cain brought an offering to Yahweh from the fruit of the ground.
  4Abel also brought some of the firstborn of his flock and of its fat. Yahweh respected Abel and his offering,
  5but he did not respect Cain and his offering. Cain was very angry, and the expression on his face fell.

6Yahweh said to Cain, “Why are you angry? Why has the expression of your face fallen?
  7If you do well, will you not be accepted? If you do not do well, sin crouches at the door. Its desire is for you, but you are to rule over it.”

8Cain said to Abel his brother, “Let’s go out into the field.” And it came to pass when they were in the field that Cain rose up against Abel his brother and killed him.

9Yahweh said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” He said, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”

10And he said, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood cries out to me from the ground.
  11Now you are cursed because of the ground that has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.
  12From now on, when you till the ground, it will not yield its strength to you. You will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth.”

13Cain said to Yahweh, “My sin is too great to be forgiven.
  14Behold, you have driven me out this day from the surface of the ground. I will be hidden from your face, and I will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth. It will happen that whoever finds me will kill me.”

15Yahweh said to him, “Not so. If anyone kills Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold.” Yahweh appointed a sign for Cain, lest any finding him should strike him.
  16Cain went out from Yahweh’s presence and lived in the land of Nod, east of Eden.

The Line of Cain

17Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and gave birth to Enoch. He built a city and called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch.
  18To Enoch was born Irad. Irad became the father of Mehujael. Mehujael became the father of Methushael. Methushael became the father of Lamech.
  19Lamech took two wives; the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah.
  20Adah gave birth to Jabal, who was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock.
  21His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all who handle the harp and pipe.
  22Zillah also gave birth to Tubal Cain, the forger of every cutting instrument of bronze and iron. Tubal Cain’s sister was Naamah.

23Lamech said to his wives, “Adah and Zillah, hear my voice. You wives of Lamech, listen to my speech: for I have slain a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me.
  24If Cain will be avenged seven times, truly Lamech 77 times.”

25Adam knew his wife again, and she gave birth to a son and named him Seth, saying, “For God has appointed me another child instead of Abel, for Cain killed him.”
  26There was also born a son to Seth, and he named him Enosh. Then men began to call on Yahweh’s name.

Genesis Chapter 5  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 5
The Line of Seth

1This is the book of the descendants of Adam. In the day that God created man, he made him in God’s likeness.
  2He created them male and female, and blessed them and called their name “Adam” in the day when they were created.

3Adam lived 130 years and became the father of a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth.
  4The days of Adam after he became the father of Seth were 800 years; and he became the father of sons and daughters.
  5All the days that Adam lived were 930 years, and then he died.

6Seth lived 105 years and became the father of Enosh.
  7Seth lived after he became the father of Enosh 807 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  8All the days of Seth were 912 years, and then he died.

9Enosh lived ninety years and became the father of Kenan.
  10Enosh lived after he became the father of Kenan 815 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  11All the days of Enosh were 905 years, and then he died.

12Kenan lived seventy years and became the father of Mahalalel.
  13Kenan lived after he became the father of Mahalalel 840 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  14And all the days of Kenan were 910 years, and then he died.

15Mahalalel lived 65 years and became the father of Jared.
  16Mahalalel lived after he became the father of Jared 830 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  17All the days of Mahalalel were 895 years, and then he died.

18Jared lived 162 years and became the father of Enoch.
  19Jared lived after he became the father of Enoch 800 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  20All the days of Jared were 962 years, and then he died.

21Enoch lived 65 years and became the father of Methuselah.
  22Enoch walked with God after he became the father of Methuselah 300 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  23All the days of Enoch were 365 years.
  24Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God took him.

25Methuselah lived 187 years and became the father of Lamech.
  26Methuselah lived after he became the father of Lamech 782 years and became the father of sons and daughters.
  27All the days of Methuselah were 969 years, and then he died.

28Lamech lived 182 years and became the father of a son,
  29and he named him Noah, saying, “This one will comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, because of the ground that Yahweh has cursed.”
  30Lamech lived after he became the father of Noah 595 years, and became the father of sons and daughters.
  31All the days of Lamech were 777 years, and then he died.

32Noah was 500 years old, and Noah became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Genesis Chapter 6  top  PDF  MSWord

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The Nephilim

1And it came to pass, when man began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born to them
  2that the sons of God saw the daughters of man, that they were desirable, and they took for themselves wives of all that they chose.
  3Yahweh said, “My spirit will not always remain in man, because he also is flesh; yet his days will be 120 years.”
  4The Nephilim were on the earth in those days (and also after this) when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, the famous men.

Judgment Decreed

5Yahweh saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
  6And Yahweh regretted that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him in his heart.
  7Yahweh said, “I will wipe man whom I have created from off the face of the earth; man, along with animals, creeping things, and birds of the heavens, for I regret that I have made them.”
  8But Noah found favor in Yahweh’s eyes.

God Warns Noah

9This is the history of the descendants of Noah. Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time. Noah walked with God.
  10Noah became the father of three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11The earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
  12God saw the earth and saw that it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way on the earth.
  13God said to Noah, “The end of all flesh has come before me, for the earth is filled with violence through them. Behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

14Make a ship of gopher wood. You are to make rooms in the ship and seal it inside and outside with pitch.
  15This is how you are to make it: The length of the ship will be 300 cubits, its breadth 50 cubits, and its height 30 cubits.
  16You are to make a roof in the ship, and you are to finish it to a cubit upward. You are to put a door in the side of the ship. You are to make it with lower, second, and third decks.

17I, even I, am bringing a flood of water on this earth to destroy from under the heavens all flesh in which is the breath of life. Everything that is on the earth will die.
  18But I will establish my covenant with you. You are to come into the ship, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.
  19And some of every living thing, some of all flesh, you are to bring into the ship to keep them alive with you; pairs of every kind. They are to be a male and a female.
  20Of the birds according to their kind, of the livestock according to their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind; pairs of every kind will come to you to keep them alive.
  21Take with you some of all the food that is eaten, and gather it to yourself; and it will be for food for you and for them.”
  22And Noah did this. According to all that God commanded him, so he did.

Genesis Chapter 7  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 7
Entering the Ark

1Yahweh said to Noah, “Come with all of your household into the ship, for I have seen you as righteous before me in this generation.
  2You are to take seven pairs of every clean animal with you, the male and his female. Of the animals that are not clean, take two, the male and his female.
  3Also of the birds of the heavens, seven pairs, a male and a female, to keep seed alive on the face of all the earth.
  4In seven days I will cause it to rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights. Every living thing that I have made I will destroy from the face of the earth.”
  5Noah did everything that Yahweh commanded him.

6Noah was 600 years old when the flood of water came on the earth.
  7Noah went into the ship with his sons, his wife and his sons’ wives because of the waters of the flood.
  8Clean animals, animals that are not clean, birds, and everything that crawls on the ground,
  9went by pairs to Noah into the ship, male and female, as God commanded Noah.
  10It came to pass after the seven days that the waters of the flood came on the earth.

The Flood

11In the 600th year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the 17th day of the month, on the same day all the fountains of the great deep were burst open and the windows of heaven were opened.
  12The rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.
  13On the same day Noah, and Shem and Ham and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah’s wife and the three wives of his sons with them, entered into the ship,
  14they and every living creature after its kind, all the livestock according to their kind, every crawling thing that crawls on the earth after its kind, and every flying thing after its kind, every bird of every sort.
  15And they went to Noah into the ship; two and two of all flesh in which there is the breath of life.
  16Those that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, just as God had commanded him; and Yahweh shut him in.

17The flood was forty days on the earth. The waters increased and lifted up the ship, and it was lifted up above the earth.
  18The waters prevailed and increased greatly on the earth, and the ship floated on the surface of the waters.
  19The waters prevailed exceedingly, yes, exceedingly on the earth. And all the high mountains that were under all the heavens were covered.
  20The waters prevailed 15 cubits upward, and the mountains were covered.
  21All flesh died that moved on the earth, including birds, livestock, animals, every creeping thing that creeps on the earth, and every man.
  22All in whose nostrils was the breath of life of all that was on the dry land died.
  23Every living thing was destroyed that was on the surface of the ground, including man, livestock, creeping things and birds of the heavens. They were destroyed from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those who were with him in the ship.
  24The waters prevailed on the earth 150 days.

Genesis Chapter 8  top  PDF  MSWord

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The Flood Recedes

1God remembered Noah, all the animals, and all the livestock that were with him in the ship; and God made a wind to pass over the earth. The waters subsided.
  2The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were also stopped, and the rain from the heavens was restrained.
  3The waters receded from the earth continually. After the end of 150 days the waters decreased.
  4And the ship rested in the seventh month, on the 17th day of the month, on the mountains of Ararat.

5The waters receded continually until the tenth month; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains were seen.
  6It came to pass at the end of forty days that Noah opened the window of the ship that he had made
  7and he sent out a raven. It went back and forth until the waters were dried up from the earth.
  8He sent out a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from the surface of the ground;
  9but the dove found no place to rest her foot, and she returned to him into the ship, for the waters were on the surface of the whole earth. He put out his hand and took her and brought her to him into the ship.
  10He stayed yet another seven days, and again he sent the dove out of the ship.
  11The dove came back to him at evening, and behold, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off. So Noah knew that the waters were abated from the earth.
  12He stayed yet another seven days and sent out the dove, and she did not return to him any more.
  13It came to pass in the 601st year, in the first month, the first day of the month, that the waters were dried up from the earth. Noah removed the covering of the ship and looked. He saw that the surface of the ground had dried.
  14In the second month, on the 27th day of the month, the earth was dry.

Yahweh’s Promise

15God spoke to Noah, saying,
  16“Go out of the ship, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you.
  17Bring out with you every living thing that is with you of all flesh–including birds, livestock and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth–that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful and multiply on the earth.”
  18Noah went out with his sons, his wife and his sons’ wives with him.
  19Every animal, every creeping thing, and every bird, whatever moves on the earth, according to their families, went out of the ship.

20Noah built an altar to Yahweh and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
  21Yahweh smelled the pleasant aroma. Yahweh said in his heart, “I will never again curse the ground because of humankind, because the imagination of people’s hearts is evil from their youth; nor will I ever again strike every living thing as I have done.
  22While the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night will not cease.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 9
God’s Covenant with Noah

1God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.
  2The fear of you and the dread of you will come upon on every animal of the earth and on every bird of the heavens. Everything that the ground teems with and all the fish of the sea are given into your hand.
  3Every moving thing that lives will be food for you. As the green herb, I have given everything to you.
  4But flesh with its life, its blood, you must not eat.
  5I will surely require your blood of your lives: At the hand of every animal I will require it. At the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, I will require the life of man.
  6“Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man is his blood to be shed, for God made man in his own image.

7Be fruitful and multiply. Increase abundantly in the earth and multiply in it.”

8God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying,
  9“As for me, behold, I establish my covenant with you and with your offspring after you,
  10and with every living soul that is with you, the birds, the livestock, and every animal of the earth with you, of all that go out of the ship; even every animal of the earth.
  11I will establish my covenant with you, all flesh will not be cut off any more by the waters of the flood, nor will there ever again be a flood to destroy the earth.”

12God said, “This is the token of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living soul that is with you, for perpetual generations:
  13I set my rainbow in the cloud, and it will be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth.
  14It will happen when I bring a cloud over the earth that the rainbow will be seen in the cloud,
  15and I will remember my covenant that is between me and you and every living soul of all flesh; and the waters will no more become a flood to destroy all flesh.
  16The rainbow will be in the cloud. I will look at it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living soul of all flesh that is on the earth.”
  17God said to Noah, “This is the token of the covenant that I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”

Prophecies about Noah’s Family

18The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Ham is the father of Canaan.
  19These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated.

20Noah began to be a farmer, and planted a vineyard.
  21He drank of the wine and got drunk. He was uncovered inside his tent.
  22Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and told his two brothers outside.
  23Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it on both their shoulders, went in backwards, and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were backwards, and they did not see their father’s nakedness.

24Noah awoke from his wine and knew what his youngest son had done to him.
  25He said, “Cursed be Canaan; he will be a servant of servants to his brothers.”
  26He said, “Blessed be Yahweh, the God of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant.
  27May God enlarge Japheth. Let him dwell in the tents of Shem. Let Canaan be his servant.”

28Noah lived 350 years after the flood.
  29All the days of Noah were 950, and then he died.

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The Table of Nations

1Now this is the history of the descendants of the sons of Noah and of Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.
  3The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.
  4The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
  5Of these were the islands of the nations divided in their lands, everyone according to his language, according to their clans, in their nations.

6The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
  7The sons of Cush: Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah: Sheba and Dedan.

8Cush became the father of Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth.
  9He was a mighty hunter before Yahweh. Therefore it is said, “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter before Yahweh.”
  10The beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.
  11Out of that land he went into Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah,
  12and Resen between Nineveh and Calah (which is the great city).

13Mizraim became the father of Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, Naphtuhim,
  14Pathrusim, Casluhim (which the Philistines descended from), and Caphtorim.

15Canaan became the father of Sidon (his firstborn), Heth,
  16the Jebusite, the Amorite, the Girgashite,
  17the Hivite, the Arkite, the Sinite,
  18the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites were spread abroad.
  19The border of the Canaanites was from Sidon as you go toward Gerar to Gaza; as you go toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboiim, to Lasha.

20These are the sons of Ham, according to their clans, according to their languages, in their lands, in their nations.

21To Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, to him also were children born.
  22The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.

23The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

24Arpachshad became the father of Shelah. Shelah became the father of Eber.
  25To Eber were born two sons. The name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided. His brother’s name was Joktan.
  26Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,
  27Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,
  28Obal, Abimael, Sheba,
  29Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.
  30Their dwelling was from Mesha as you go toward Sephar, the mountain of the east.

31These are the sons of Shem, according to their clans, according to their languages, in their lands, according to their nations.

32These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their generations, in their nations. From these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.

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The Tower of Babel

1The whole earth was of one language and of one speech.
  2It came to pass as they traveled east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar and they lived there.
  3They said one to another, “Come, let’s make bricks, yes, bricks, and burn, yes, burn them.” They had brick for stone, and they used tar for mortar.
  4They said, “Come, let’s build ourselves a city and a tower whose top reaches to the heavens, and let’s make ourselves a name, lest we be scattered abroad on the surface of the whole earth.”

5Yahweh came down to see the city and the tower that the children of men built.
  6Yahweh said, “Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is what they begin to do. Now nothing will be withheld from them that they intend to do.
  7Come, let’s go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.”
  8So Yahweh scattered them abroad from there on the surface of all the earth. They stopped building the city.
  9Therefore its name was called Babel, because there Yahweh confused the language of all the earth. From there Yahweh scattered them abroad on the surface of all the earth.

From Shem to Abram

10This is the history of the descendants of Shem. Shem was 100 years old and became the father of Arpachshad two years after the flood.
  11Shem lived 500 years after he became the father of Arpachshad and became the father of sons and daughters.

12Arpachshad lived 35 years and became the father of Shelah.
  13Arpachshad lived 403 years after he became the father of Shelah and became the father of sons and daughters.

14Shelah lived thirty years and became the father of Eber;
  15and Shelah lived 403 years after he became the father of Eber and became the father of sons and daughters.

16Eber lived 34 years and became the father of Peleg.
  17Eber lived 430 years after he became the father of Peleg and became the father of sons and daughters.

18Peleg lived thirty years and became the father of Reu.
  19Peleg lived 209 years after he became the father of Reu and became the father of sons and daughters.

20Reu lived 32 years and became the father of Serug.
  21Reu lived 207 years after he became the father of Serug and became the father of sons and daughters.

22Serug lived thirty years and became the father of Nahor.
  23Serug lived 200 years after he became the father of Nahor and became the father of sons and daughters.

24Nahor lived 29 years and became the father of Terah.
  25Nahor lived 119 years after he became the father of Terah and became the father of sons and daughters.

26Terah lived seventy years and became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

27Now this is the history of the descendants of Terah. Terah became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran. Haran became the father of Lot.
  28Haran died before his father Terah in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldees.
  29Abram and Nahor took wives. The name of Abram’s wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran who was also the father of Iscah.
  30Sarai was barren. She had no child.

31Terah took Abram his son, Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son, and Sarai his daughter–in–law, his son Abram’s wife. They went from Ur of the Chaldees to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran and lived there.
  32The days of Terah were 205 years. Terah died in Haran.

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The Call of Abram

1Now Yahweh said to Abram, “Get out of your country and from your relatives and from your father’s house and go to the land that I will show you.
  2And I will make of you a great nation. and I will bless you and make your name great, and you will be a blessing.
  3And I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse the one who curses you, and all of the clans of the earth will be blessed in you.”

4So Abram went, as Yahweh had told him to. Lot went with him. Abram was 75 years old when he departed out of Haran.
  5Abram took Sarai his wife, Lot his brother’s son, all their possessions that they had accumulated, and the souls whom they had acquired in Haran, and they went to go into the land of Canaan. When they came into the land of Canaan,
  6Abram passed through the land to the place of Shechem, to the oak of Moreh. (And the Canaanite was already in the land).
  7Yahweh appeared to Abram and said, “I will give this land to your seed.” So he built an altar there to Yahweh, who appeared to him.
  8From there he moved to the hill country on the east of Bethel and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. He built an altar to Yahweh there, and called on the name of Yahweh.
  9Abram traveled, going on still toward the Negev.

Abram in Egypt

10There was a famine in the land. Abram went down into Egypt to live as a foreigner there, for the famine was severe in the land.
  11It came to pass that when he was about to enter Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, “See now, I know that you are a woman who is beautiful in appearance.
  12It will happen when the Egyptians see you that they will say, ‘This is his wife.’ They will kill me, but they will save you alive.
  13Please say that you are my sister, that it may be well with me for your sake, and that my soul may live because of you.”
  14It came to pass that when Abram had come into Egypt, the Egyptians saw that the woman was very beautiful.
  15The officials of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house.
  16He treated Abram well for her sake, and he acquired sheep, cattle, male donkeys, male slaves, female slaves, female donkeys, and camels.

17But Yahweh plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife.
  18Pharaoh called Abram and said, “What is this that you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?
  19Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her to be my wife? Now therefore, here is your wife! Take her, and go your way.”

20Pharaoh commanded men concerning him, and they brought him on the way with his wife and all that he had.

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Abram and Lot Separate

1Abram went up out of Egypt, he, his wife, all that he had, and Lot with him, into the Negev.
  2Abram was very rich in livestock, in silver, and in gold.
  3He went on his journeys from Negev even to Bethel, to the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Bethel and Ai,
  4to the place of the altar that he had made there at the first. Abram called on the name of Yahweh there.

5Lot also, who went with Abram, had flocks and herds and tents.
  6The land was not able to bear them when they lived together; for their possessions were so great that they could not live together.
  7And there were quarrels between the herdsmen of Abram’s livestock and the herdsmen of Lot’s livestock, and the Canaanite and the Perizzite lived in the land at that time.

8Abram said to Lot, “Please, do not let there be any quarrels between me and you, and between my herdsmen and your herdsmen, for we are relatives.
  9Isn’t the whole land before you? Please separate yourself from me. If you go to the left hand, then I will go to the right, or if you go to the right hand, then I will go to the left.”

10Lot lifted up his eyes and saw all the plain of the Jordan, that it was well-watered everywhere like the garden of Yahweh, like the land of Egypt as you go to Zoar. (This was before Yahweh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah).
  11So Lot chose the Plain of the Jordan for himself and Lot traveled east. So they separated themselves from each other.
  12Abram lived in the land of Canaan, and Lot lived in the cities of the plain and moved his tent near Sodom.
  13Now the men of Sodom were exceedingly wicked and sinners against Yahweh.

14Yahweh said to Abram, after Lot was separated from him, “Now, lift up your eyes and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward,
  15for all the land that you see I will give to you and to your seed forever.
  16I will make your offspring as the dust of the earth, so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then your seed may also be numbered.
  17Arise, walk through the land; through its length and its breadth, for I will give it to you.”

18Abram moved his tent and went and lived by the oaks of Mamre that are in Hebron, and built an altar to Yahweh there.

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Abram Rescues Lot

1It came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
  2that they made war with Bera king of Sodom and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar).
  3All these joined together in the Valley of Siddim (that is, the Salt Sea).
  4They served Chedorlaomer for 12 years, and in the 13th year they rebelled.
  5In the 14th year Chedorlaomer came, and the kings who were with him, and struck the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim,
  6and the Horites in the hill country of Seir as far as Elparan, which is by the wilderness.
  7They returned and came to En Mishpat (that is, Kadesh) and conquered all the territory of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites that lived in Hazazon Tamar.

8The king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar) went out, and they lined up for battle against them in the Valley of Siddim,
  9against Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar, four kings against the five.
  10Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits, and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, some fell into them, and those who remained fled to the hill country.
  11They took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their food, and went their way.
  12They also took Lot, the son of Abram’s brother, who lived in Sodom, and his goods, and departed.

13Then one who had escaped came and told Abram the Hebrew. Now he was living by the oaks of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol and brother of Aner; and these were allies of Abram.
  14When Abram heard that his relative was taken captive, he led out his trained men, born in his house, 318, and pursued as far as Dan.
  15He divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and struck them and pursued them to Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus.
  16He brought back all the goods, and also brought back his relative Lot and his goods, and the women also and the other people.

Melchizedek’s Blessing

17Then after his return from the defeat of Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh (that is, the King’s Valley).
  18Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine, and he was priest of God Most High.
  19He blessed him, and said, “Blessed be Abram of God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth;
  20and blessed be God Most High, who has given your enemies into your hand.” Abram gave him a tenth of all.

21The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people, and take the goods to yourself.”

22Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have lifted up my hand and sworn to Yahweh, God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth,
  23that I will not take a thread nor a sandal strap nor anything that is yours, lest you should say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’
  24I will accept nothing from you except what the young men have eaten, and the share of the spoil of the men who went with me: Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre. Let them take their share.”

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The Abrahamic Covenant

1After these things the word of Yahweh came to Abram in a vision, saying, “Do not be afraid, Abram, I am your shield; your exceedingly great reward.”

2Abram said, “Lord Yahweh, what will you give me, since I go childless, and he who will inherit my estate is Eliezer of Damascus?”
  3Abram said, “Behold, to me you have given no seed, and behold, one born in my house is my heir.”

4Behold, the word of Yahweh came to him, saying, “This man will not be your heir; but he who will come out of your own body will be your heir.”
  5Yahweh brought him outside and said, “Look now toward the heavens, and count the stars, if you are able to count them.” He said to Abram, “So your seed will be.”

6He believed in Yahweh, and he credited it to him as righteousness.

7He said to him, “I am Yahweh who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldees to give you this land to possess it.”

8He said, “Lord Yahweh, how will I know that I will possess it?”

9He said to him, “Bring me a heifer three years old, a female goat three years old, a ram three years old, a turtledove, and a young pigeon.”

10So he brought him all of these and cut them down the middle and laid each half opposite the other, but he did not divide the birds.
  11The birds of prey came down on the carcasses, but Abram drove them away.
  12When the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell on Abram; and behold, terror and great darkness fell on him.

13And he said to Abram, “You must know, yes, know that your seed will live as foreigners in a land that is not theirs (and will serve them and they will afflict them) 400 years.
  14I will also judge that nation whom they will serve. Afterward they will come out with great wealth;
  15but you will go to your fathers in peace. You will be buried in a good old age.
  16In the fourth generation they will come here again, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet full.”

17It came to pass that when the sun went down and it was dark, behold, a smoking firepot and a flaming torch passed between these pieces.
  18In that day Yahweh cut a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your seed I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates:
  19the land of the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites,
  20the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim,
  21the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.”

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Hagar and Ishmael

1Now Sarai, Abram’s wife, bore him no children. Now she had a slave-girl, an Egyptian whose name was Hagar.
  2Sarai said to Abram, “Behold now, Yahweh has prevented me from bearing. Please go in to my slave-girl. It may be that I can build a family by her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai.
  3So after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan, Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her slave-girl, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife.
  4He went in to Hagar, and she conceived. When she saw that she had conceived, her mistress became of little worth in her eyes.
  5Sarai said to Abram, “This violence is your fault! I gave my slave into your bosom, and when she saw that she had conceived, I became of little worth in her eyes. May Yahweh judge between me and you.”

6But Abram said to Sarai, “Behold, your slave-girl is in your hand. Do to her whatever is good in your eyes.” Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her face.

7The angel of Yahweh found her by a spring of water in the wilderness; the spring on the road to Shur.
  8He said, “Hagar, Sarai’s slave-girl, where did you come from? Where are you going?” She said, “I am fleeing from the face of my mistress Sarai.”

9The angel of Yahweh said to her, “Return to your mistress and let yourself be afflicted under her hands.”
  10The angel of Yahweh said to her, “I will make your seed many, yes, many, so that they will not be able to be counted because of the multitude.”

11The angel of Yahweh said to her, “Behold, you are with child, and will bear a son, and you are to call his name Ishmael, because Yahweh has heard and paid attention to your affliction.
  12He will be a wild donkey of a man. His hand will be against every man and every man’s hand will be against him. He will live in hostility to all of his brothers.”

13She called the name of Yahweh who spoke to her, “You are a God who sees,” for she said, “Have I even gone on seeing after his seeing me?”
  14Therefore the well was called, “Well of the Living One Who Sees Me.” Behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

15So Hagar bore a son for Abram. Abram called the name of his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael.
  16And Abram was 86 years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 17
The Sign of the Covenant

1When Abram was 99 years old Yahweh appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty. Walk before me, and be blameless.
  2I will make my covenant between me and you, and will increase your numbers greatly, yes, greatly.

3Abram fell on his face. God talked with him, saying,
  4“As for me, behold, my covenant is with you. You will be the father of a crowd of nations.
  5No longer will your name be called Abram, but your name will be Abraham, for I have made you the father of a crowd of nations.
  6I will make you fruitful; greatly, yes, greatly fruitful, and I will make nations of you, and kings will come from you.
  7I will establish my covenant between me and you and your seed after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God to you and to your seed after you.
  8I will give to you and to your seed after you the land where you are traveling, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession, and I will be their God.”

9God said to Abraham, “As for you, you are to keep my covenant, you and your seed after you throughout their generations.
  10This is my covenant between me and you and your seed after you that you must keep: Every male among you must be circumcised.
  11You must circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. It will be a sign of the covenant between me and you.
  12He who is eight days old among you must be circumcised, every male throughout your generations; including a slave who is born in your house or bought with money from any foreigner who is not your seed.
  13He who is born in your house and he who is bought with your money must be circumcised. My covenant will be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.
  14The uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul will be cut off from his people. He has broken my covenant.”

15God said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, you are not to call her name Sarai, but her name will be Sarah.
  16I will bless her, and moreover, I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she will be a mother of nations. Kings of peoples will come from her.”

17Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said in his heart, “Will a child be born to him who is 100 years old? Will Sarah, who is ninety years old, give birth?”
  18Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before you!”

19God said, “Truly, Sarah your wife will bear you a son, and you are to call his name Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant for his seed after him.
  20And as for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I have blessed him and will make him fruitful and will multiply him exceedingly, yes exceedingly. He will become the father of 12 rulers, and I will make him into a great nation.
  21But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this set time next year.”
  22When he finished talking with him, God went up from Abraham.

23Then Abraham took Ishmael his son and all the slaves who were born in his house and all who were bought with his money, every male among the men of the house of Abraham, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on the same day, just as God had told him to do.
  24Abraham was 99 years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.
  25And Ishmael, his son, was 13 years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.
  26On the same day both Abraham and Ishmael his son were circumcised,
  27and also all the men of his house, those born in the house and those bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him.

Genesis Chapter 18  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 18
Abraham’s Three Visitors

1And Yahweh appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he was sitting at the entrance of the tent in the heat of the day.
  2And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing nearby him. When he saw them, he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and he bowed down to the ground
  3and said, “My lord, if now I have found favor in your eyes, please do not go away from your servant.
  4Now let a little water be fetched, wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree.
  5I will get a piece of bread so you can refresh your heart. After that you may go your way—for that is why you have come to your servant.” They said, “Very well, do as you have said.”

6Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah and said, “Quick! Three measuresa of fine flour! Knead it and make bread.”
  7Abraham ran to the herd and fetched a tender and good calf, and gave it to the servant. He hurried to prepare it.
  8And he took curds, and milk, and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them, and he stood by them under the tree while they ate.

Sarah Laughs

9They asked him, “Where is Sarah, your wife?” He said, “There, in the tent.”

10He said, “I will return, yes, return to you about this time next year. And, behold, Sarah your wife will have a son.” Sarah was listening from the tent entrance, which was behind him.

11Now Abraham and Sarah were old, well advanced in days. For Sarah, it had ceased to be after the way of women.
  12So Sarah laughed within herself, saying, “After I am worn out and my lord is also old, will I have this pleasure?”

13But Yahweh said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh, saying, ‘Will I really give birth to a child when I am old?’
  14Is anything too hard for Yahweh? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah will have a son.”

15Then Sarah denied it, saying, “I didn’t laugh,” for she was afraid. But he said, “No, but you did laugh.”

Abraham Intercedes for Sodom

16The men rose up from there and looked down toward the face of Sodom. Abraham was walking with them to send them on their way.
  17Yahweh said, “Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do,
  18since Abraham will become, yes, become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth will be blessed in him?
  19For I have chosen him, so that he will command his children and his house after him to keep the way of Yahweh by doing what is right and just, so that Yahweh may bring on Abraham what he has spoken concerning him.”
  20And Yahweh said, “The outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin is so very grievous,
  21that I will go down now and see whether what they have done is as bad as the reports that have come to me. And if not, I will know.”

22The two men turned from there and went toward Sodom, but Abraham still stood before Yahweh.
  23And Abraham drew near and said, “Will you really sweep away the righteous with the wicked?
  24What if there are fifty righteous inside the city? Will you really sweep it away and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous who are in it?
  25Far be it from you to do such a thing—to kill the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous and the wicked are treated alike. Far be it from you! Will not the Judge of all the earth deal justly?”

26And Yahweh said, “If I find in Sodom fifty righteous inside the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”

27And Abraham answered, “Behold now, I have ventured to speak to the Lord, though I am but dust and ashes.
  28Perhaps of the fifty righteous, five will be lacking? Will you destroy the whole city for lack of five?” And he said, “I will not destroy it if I find 45 there.”

29And he spoke to him yet again, and said, “What if forty are found there?” He said, “I will not do it for the sake of the forty.”

30He said, “Oh let the Lord not be angry, and I will speak. What if there are thirty found there?” He said, “I will not do it, if I find thirty there.”

31He said, “Behold now, I have ventured to speak to the Lord. What if there are twenty found there?” He said, “I will not destroy it for the sake of the twenty.”

32He said, “Oh let the Lord not be angry, and I will speak only this once. What if ten are found there?” He said, “I will not destroy it for the sake of the ten.”
  33And Yahweh went his way as soon as he had finished speaking with Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

About 21 quarts; 22 liters

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Go to Commentary on Gen 19
The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah

1And the two angels came to Sodom at evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, and rose up to meet them, and he bowed down with his face to the earth
  2and he said, “Behold now, my lords, please turn aside into your servant’s house, stay the night, wash your feet. Then you can rise up early and go on your way.” They said, “No, but we will spend the night in the city square.”
  3But he pressed them hard, so they turned aside with him and went into his house. He made them a feast and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

4But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both young and old, all the people even from the outskirts of the city, surrounded the house.
  5They called out to Lot and said to him, “Where are the men who came in to you tonight? Bring them out to us, so that we can know them sexually.”

6Lot went out to them, to the door, and shut the door after him.
  7And he said, “Please, my brothers, do not act so wickedly.
  8Behold now, I have two daughters who have not known a man. Let me bring them out to you, and do to them whatever is good in your eyes. Only do not do anything to these men, because they have come under the shadow of my roof.”

9But they said, “Stand aside!” Then they said, “This one came in to live as a foreigner, and he appoints himself as a judge. Now will we deal worse with you than with them!” And they pressed hard on the man Lot, and drew near to break down the door.
  10But the men reached out their hands and brought Lot to them, into the house, and shut the door.
  11They struck the men who were at the door of the house with blindness, both small and great, so that they wore themselves out trying to find the door.

12The men said to Lot, “Do you have anyone else here? Sons–in–law, and your sons, and your daughters, and all that you have in the city, bring them out of this place;
  13for we are about to destroy this place, because the outcry against them is so great before the face of Yahweh that Yahweh has sent us to destroy it.”

14So Lot went out and spoke to his sons–in–law, who were pledged to marry his daughters, and said, “Get up! Get out of this place, for Yahweh is about to destroy the city.” But in the eyes of his sons–in–law he was as one who was joking.

15And when the dawn arose, the angels urged Lot on, saying, “Get up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, lest you be swept away in the punishment of the city!”
  16But he hesitated. So the men grabbed his hand, and his wife’s hand, and his two daughters’ hands, because Yahweh was merciful to him; and they brought him out and set him outside the city.

17And it came to pass when they had brought them out that one of them said, “Escape for your life! Do not look behind you, and do not stop anywhere in the plain. Escape to the hill country or you will be swept away!”

18But Lot said to them, “Oh, no, my lord.
  19Behold now, your servant has found favor in your eyes, and you have shown me great kindness by saving my life. But I cannot escape to the hill country, lest this disaster overtake me and I die.
  20Look, this city is close enough to escape to, and it is a little one. Oh let me escape there—isn’t it a little one?—and my soul will live.”

21And he said to him, “Behold, I will lift up your face in this matter also; and I will not overthrow the city of which you have spoken.
  22Be quick! Escape to there!—for I cannot do anything until you get there.” That is why the name of the city was called Zoar.

23The sun had just risen over the earth when Lot came to Zoar.
  24Then Yahweh rained on Sodom and on Gomorrah sulfur and fire—coming from Yahweh out of heaven.
  25And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and whatever grew on the ground.
  26But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.

27And Abraham started early in the morning to go to the place where he had stood before Yahweh.
  28He looked out toward the face of Sodom and Gomorrah and toward the face of all the land of the plain. And he looked, and behold, the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace.
  29It came to pass that when God destroyed the cities of the plain, that God remembered Abraham and brought Lot out of the middle of the overthrow when he overthrew the cities where Lot had been living.

The Origin of Moab and Ammon

30And Lot went up out of Zoar and settled in the hill country, and his two daughters with him, for he was afraid to live in Zoar. He lived in a cave with his two daughters.
  31Then the firstborn said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is not a man on the earth to come into us as is the way of all the earth.
  32Come, let’s make our father drink wine, and let’s lie with him, so that we can preserve our father’s seed.”
  33So they made their father drink wine that night; and the firstborn went in and lay with her father. But he didn’t know when she lay down nor when she arose.

34And it came to pass on the next day that the firstborn said to the younger, “Behold, I lay last night with my father. Let us make him drink wine again tonight. Then you go in and lie with him, so that we can preserve our father’s seed.”
  35So they made their father drink wine that night also. And the younger arose and lay with him, and he did not know when she lay down nor when she got up.

36Thus both of Lot’s daughters were with child by their father.
  37The firstborn bore a son and called his name Moab. He is the father of the Moabites to this day.
  38The younger also bore a son and called his name Ben Ammi. He is the father of the children of Ammon to this day.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 20
Sarah Rescued from Abimelech

1Abraham traveled from there toward the region of the Negev and lived between Kadesh and Shur. While temporarily staying in Gerar,
  2Abraham said about Sarah his wife, “She is my sister.” So Abimelech king of Gerar sent and took Sarah.

3But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night and said to him, “Behold, you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken, for she is a man’s wife.”

4Now Abimelech had not approached her, so he said, “Lord, will you kill a nation even though it is blameless?
  5Did not he himself say to me, ‘She is my sister?’ And she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity of my heart and with clean hands I have done this.”

6God said to him in the dream, “Indeed, I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this, and I also kept you from sinning against me. Therefore I did not let you touch her.
  7But now, return the man’s wife. Indeed, he is a prophet, and he will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not return her, know that you will die, yes, die; you and all who are yours.”

8So Abimelech rose early in the morning and called all his servants and told all these things in their ear; and the men were greatly frightened.

9Then Abimelech called Abraham and said to him, “What have you done to us? How have I sinned against you, that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? You have done things to me that should never be done!”
  10And Abimelech went on asking Abraham, “What did you see, that you have done this thing?”

11And Abraham said, “Because I said to myself, ‘Surely there is no fear of God in this place. They will kill me on account of my wife.
  12Besides, she really is my sister, the daughter of my father but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife.
  13And it came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father’s house, that I said to her, “This is the kindness that you can show to me. Everywhere that we go, say about me, ‘He is my brother.’”

14Abimelech took sheep and cattle, male slaves and female slaves, and gave them to Abraham, and returned Sarah his wife to him.
  15Abimelech said, “Behold, my land is before you. Wherever it seems good in your eyes, live there.”
  16And to Sarah he said, “Behold, I have given your brother 1,000 pieces of silver. Behold, it is for you a covering of the eyes to all that are with you. In front of all you are vindicated.”

17Then Abraham prayed to God, and God healed Abimelech, and his wife and his female slaves so that they could bear children,
  18for Yahweh had closed, yes, closed all the wombs of the house of Abimelech because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 21
The Birth of Isaac

1Now Yahweh visited Sarah as he had said, and Yahweh did to Sarah what he had spoken.
  2And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age at the set time of which God had spoken to him.
  3And Abraham called his son who was born to him—whom Sarah bore to him—Isaac.
  4Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him.
  5Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

6And Sarah said, “God has made me laugh. Everyone who hears will laugh with me.”
  7And she said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children? Yet I have borne him a son in his old age.”

Hagar and Ishmael Sent Away

8The child grew and was weaned. Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.
  9But Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking.
  10So she said to Abraham, “Cast out this slave woman and her son! For the son of this slave woman will not be heir with my son Isaac.”

11And Sarah’s word was very grievous in Abraham’s eyes, because of his son.
  12But God said to Abraham, “Do not let it be grievous in your eyes because of the boy and because of your slave woman. In all that Sarah says to you, listen to her voice, because it is through Isaac that your seed will be called.
  13And I will also make a nation of the son of the slave woman, because he is your seed.”

14Abraham rose up early in the morning and took bread and a skin-bottle of water and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and gave her the child, and sent her away. She departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba.
  15When the water in the skin was used up, she shoved the child under one of the shrubs.
  16Then she went and sat down opposite him a good way off, about a bow shot away. For she said, “Do not let me see the death of the child.” She sat opposite him and lifted up her voice and wept.

17But God heard the voice of the boy, and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven and said to her, “What troubles you, Hagar? Do not be afraid. For God has heard the voice of the boy where he is.
  18Get up, lift up the boy and hold him up with your hand. For I will make a great nation from him.”
  19And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. So she went, filled the skin with water and gave the boy a drink.
  20God was with the boy, and he grew up. He lived in the wilderness and became an expert with the bow.
  21He lived in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother took a wife for him out of the land of Egypt.

Abraham’s Covenant with Abimelech

22It came to pass at that time that Abimelech, and Phicol the captain of his army, spoke to Abraham, saying, “God is with you in all that you do.
  23So now swear to me here by God that you will not deal falsely with me nor with my son nor with my son’s son. Rather, according to the kindness that I have done to you, you will do to me and to the land where you have lived as a foreigner.”

24And Abraham said, “I will swear.”
  25But Abraham complained to Abimelech because of a water well that Abimelech’s servants had seized by force.

26Abimelech said, “I do not know who has done this thing. You didn’t tell me, nor have I heard about it until today.”

27Then Abraham took sheep and cattle and gave them to Abimelech, and the two of them cut a covenant.
  28Then Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock apart by themselves.
  29And Abimelech said to Abraham, “What do these seven ewe lambs that you have set by themselves mean?”

30He said, “You should accept these seven ewe lambs from my hand, so that it may be a witness for me that I have dug this well.”
  31So he called that place Beer-sheba, because the two of them swore an oath there.
  32So they cut a covenant at Beer-sheba. Then Abimelech rose up with Phicol, the captain of his army, and they returned into the land of the Philistines.

33Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beer-sheba, and there he called on the name of Yahweh, the Everlasting God.
  34Abraham lived as a foreigner in the land of the Philistines many days.

Genesis Chapter 22  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 22
The Sacrifice of Isaac

1It came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham and said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.”

2He said, “Now take your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go into the land of Moriah and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I will point out to you.”

3So Abraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and he split the wood for the burnt offering and rose up and went to the place that God had told him of.
  4On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place in the distance.
  5Then Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey while the boy and I go over there and bow down in worship, then come back to you.”
  6Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took in his own hand the fire and the knife. And the two of them walked on together.

7And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, “My father!” And he said, “Here I am, my son.” And he said, “Here are the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?”

8And Abraham said, “God will himself see to providing the lamb for a burnt offering, my son.” So they both went together.

9And they came to the place that God had told him of, and Abraham built the altar there and laid the wood in order and bound Isaac his son and laid him on the altar, on the wood.
  10Abraham reached out his hand and took the knife to slaughter his son.

11But the angel of Yahweh called to him out of heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.”

12He said, “Do not reach out your hand toward the boy; do not do anything to him. For now I know that you fear God, because you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.”
  13Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and saw that behind him was a ram, caught in the thicket by his horns. Abraham went and took the ram and offered him up for a burnt offering instead of his son.
  14Abraham called the name of that place “Yahweh Will Provide.” As it is said to this day, “On Yahweh’s mountain it will be provided.”

15The angel of Yahweh called to Abraham a second time out of heaven
  16and said, “I have sworn by myself,” says Yahweh, “because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son,
  17that I will bless you, yes, bless you, and I will make your seed many, yes, many, like the stars of the heavens and like the sand that is on the seashore. And your seed will possess the gate of his enemies.
  18In your seed all the nations of the earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.”

19Then Abraham returned to his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beer-sheba. And Abraham lived at Beer-sheba.

Rebekah’s Family

20It came to pass after these things that it was told to Abraham, saying, “Behold, Milcah has also borne sons to your brother Nahor:
  21Uz his firstborn and Buz his brother and Kemuel (the father of Aram),
  22and Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel.”
  23Bethuel became the father of Rebekah. These eight Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.
  24And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, also bore Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah.

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Sarah’s Burial

1Now Sarah lived 127 years. These were the years of Sarah’s life.
  2And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan, and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her.

3And Abraham rose up from before his dead wife and spoke to the sons of Heth, saying,
  4“I am a stranger and a foreigner living among you. Give me a property among you for a burying–place so that I may bury my dead out of my sight.”

5The sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying to him,
  6“Hear us, my lord. You are a mighty ruler among us. Bury your dead in the best of our tombs. None of us will withhold from you his tomb. Bury your dead.”

7Abraham rose up and bowed down to the people of the land, even to the sons of Heth.
  8And he spoke with them, saying, “If it is in your mind that I may bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat Ephron the son of Zohar for me,
  9that he may give me the cave of Machpelah that he owns, which is at the end of his field. For the full price let him give it to me in your presence as a property for a burying–place.”

10Now Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the sons of Heth, even of all those who entered the gate of his city, saying,
  11“No, my lord, hear me: I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. In the presence of the sons of my people I give it to you. Bury your dead.”

12And Abraham bowed down before the people of the land.
  13And he spoke to Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying, “But if you will, please hear me: I will give the price of the field. Take it from me, and I will bury my dead there.”

14Ephron answered Abraham, saying to him,
  15“My lord, listen to me. A piece of land worth 400 shekels of silver—what is that between me and you? Bury your dead.”
  16And Abraham listened to Ephron. Abraham weighed out to Ephron the silver that he had named in the hearing of the sons of Heth, 400 shekels of silver, according to the current merchants’ standard.

17So the field of Ephron that was in Machpelah, which was to the east of Mamre, the field, the cave that was in it and all the trees that were in the field, that were within its boundaries, were deeded over
  18to Abraham as a possession in the presence of the sons of Heth, before all who entered the gate of his city.
  19And after this, Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave of the field of Machpelah east of Mamre (that is, Hebron) in the land of Canaan.
  20The field and the cave that is in it were deeded over to Abraham as a possession for a burying place by the sons of Heth.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 24
A Wife for Isaac

1Now Abraham was old and well advanced in days, and Yahweh had blessed Abraham in all things.
  2And Abraham said to his servant, the oldest of his house who was in charge of all that he had, “Please put your hand under my thigh,
  3and I will have you swear by Yahweh, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you will not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I live,
  4but you are to go to my country and to my relatives, and take a wife for my son Isaac.”

5The servant said to him, “What if the woman is not willing to follow me to this land? Must I then take your son back to the land that you came out from?”

6Abraham said to him, “See to it that you do not take my son back there again!
  7Yahweh, the God of heaven, who took me from my father’s house and from the land of my birth, and who spoke to me and who swore to me, saying, ‘I will give this land to your seed,’ he himself will send his angel before you so that you can take a wife for my son from there.
  8But if the woman is not willing to follow you, then you will be clear from this oath of mine. Only you must not take my son there again.”
  9So the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his lord, and swore to him concerning this matter.

10Then the servant took ten camels of his lord’s camels and departed, having all kinds of good things of his lord’s with him. He arose and went to Mesopotamia to the city of Nahor.
  11And he made the camels kneel down outside the city by the well of water at the time of evening, the time that women go out to draw water.

12And he said, “O Yahweh, the God of my lord Abraham, please give me success this day, and show kindness to my master Abraham.
  13Behold, I am standing by the spring of water, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water.
  14Let it happen that the girl to whom I will say, ‘Please let down your water jug that I may drink,’ and who responds, ‘Drink, and I will also give your camels a drink,’–let her be the one you have decided upon for your servant Isaac. By this I will know that you have shown kindness to my lord.”

15It came to pass that before he had finished speaking that behold, Rebekah, who was born to Bethuel the son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother, came out with her water jug on her shoulder.
  16The girl was very beautiful to look at, a virgin; no man had known her. And she went down to the spring, filled her water jug, and came up.
  17And the servant ran to meet her and said, “Please give me a little drink—a little water from your water jug.”

18And she said, “Drink, my lord.” She hurried and let down her water jug onto her arm and gave him a drink.
  19And when she had finished giving him a drink, she said, “I will also draw water for your camels until they have finished drinking.”
  20And she hurried and emptied her pitcher into the trough and ran again to the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels.
  21The man watched her closely, remaining silent, to know whether Yahweh had made his journey prosperous or not.

22It came to pass when the camels had finished drinking that the man took a golden nose-ring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets weighing ten shekels of gold for her wrists,
  23and said, “Whose daughter are you? Please tell me. Is there a place in your father’s house for us to spend the night?”

24And she said to him, “I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor.”
  25And she said to him, “Yes, there is straw, and yes, plenty of feed, and yes, a place to spend the night.”

26The man kneeled down and worshipeda Yahweh.
  27And he said, “Blessed be Yahweh, the God of my lord Abraham, who has not forsaken his loving kindness and his faithfulness toward my lord. As for me, Yahweh has guided me on the road to the house of my lord’s relatives.”

28Then the girl ran and told her mother’s house about these things.
  29Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban. Laban ran out to the man, to the spring.
  30It came to pass when he saw the nose-ring, and the bracelets on his sister’s hands, and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, “This is what the man said to me,” that he went to the man. And behold, he was standing by the camels at the spring.

31And he said, “Come in, blessed of Yahweh! Why do you stand outside? For I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels.”
  32So the man came into the house. And Laban unloaded the camels, and he gave straw and feed for the camels, and water to wash his feet and the feet of the men who were with him.

33But when food was set before him to eat, he said, “I will not eat until I have spoken my words.” And he said, “Speak.”

34So he said, “I am Abraham’s servant.
  35Yahweh has blessed my lord abundantly, and he has become great. He has given him flocks and herds and silver and gold and male slaves and female slaves and camels and donkeys.
  36Sarah, my lord’s wife, bore a son to my lord when she was old, and he has given all that he has to him.
  37My lord made me swear, saying, ‘You are not to take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I live,
  38but you are to go to my father’s house and to my relatives, and take a wife for my son.’
  39I asked my lord, ‘What if the woman will not follow me?’
  40And he said to me, ‘Yahweh, before whom I have walked, will send his angel with you and make your journey a success. You will take a wife for my son from my relatives and from my father’s house.
  41Only then will you be free from my oath: when you come to my relatives, if they do not give her to you, you will be free from my oath.’

42“I came this day to the spring and said, ‘Yahweh, the God of my lord Abraham, if now you wish to prosper the way that I am going,
  43behold, I am standing by this spring of water. Let it happen that the young woman who comes out to draw, to whom I will say, “Please give me a little water from your pitcher to drink,”
  44and she says to me, “Drink, and I will also draw for your camels,”—let her be the woman whom Yahweh has decided on for my lord’s son.’

45“Before I had finished speaking in my heart, behold, Rebekah came out with her pitcher on her shoulder. She went down to the spring and drew. I said to her, ‘Please let me drink.’
  46And she quickly let down her pitcher from her shoulder and said, ‘Drink, and I will also give your camels a drink.’ So I drank, and she also gave the camels a drink.
  47Then I asked her and said, ‘Whose daughter are you?’ She said, ‘The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor’s son, whom Milcah bore to him.’ So I put the ring on her nose and the bracelets on her wrists,
  48and I kneeled down and worshiped Yahweh and blessed Yahweh, the God of my lord Abraham, who had led me in the right way to take my lord’s brother’s daughter for his son.
  49Now if you will deal kindly and truly with my lord, tell me. If not, tell me, so that I may turn to the right hand or to the left.”

50Then Laban and Bethuel answered, “The thing has come from Yahweh. We cannot speak to you bad or good.
  51Behold, Rebekah is before you. Take her and go, and let her be your lord’s son’s wife, as Yahweh has spoken.”

52It came to pass that when Abraham’s servant heard their words, he bowed down on the ground before Yahweh.
  53Then the servant brought out articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing, and gave them to Rebekah. He also gave valuable things to her brother and her mother.

54They ate and drank, he and the men who were with him, and stayed all night. They rose up in the morning and he said, “Send me away to my lord.”

55But her brother and her mother said, “Let the young girl stay with us a few days, at least ten. After that she will go.”

56But he said to them, “Do not hinder me, since Yahweh has prospered my way. Send me away that I may go to my lord.”

57And they said, “We will call the young girl and ask her.”

58Then they called Rebekah and said to her, “Will you go with this man?” And she said, “I will go.”
  59So they sent away Rebekah their sister with the one who had nursed and raised her, and Abraham’s servant and his men.

60They blessed Rebekah and said to her, “Our sister, may you become thousands of 10,000’s, and let your seed gain possession of the gate of those who hate them.”

61Rebekah arose with her young women. They rode on the camels and followed the man. The servant took Rebekah and went his way.

62Now Isaac had come from going to Beer Lahai Roi, for he lived in the region of the Negev.
  63Isaac went out to ponder in the field at the evening. He lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold, there were camels coming.
  64Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she dismounted quickly from the camel.
  65She said to the servant, “Who is that man walking in the field to meet us?” The servant said, “It is my lord.” So she took her veil and covered herself.
  66And the servant told Isaac all the things that he had done.

67Then Isaac brought her into the tent of Sarah his mother, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife, and he loved her, and Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.

Or, “bowed down before”

Genesis Chapter 25  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Gen 25
Abraham’s Other Wife and Sons

1And Abraham had taken another wife, and her name was Keturah.
  2And she bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.
  3And Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. The sons of Dedan were Asshurim, Letushim, and Leummim.
  4The sons of Midian: Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.
  5Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac,
  6but to the sons of the concubines whom Abraham had, he gave gifts while he was still living, and he sent them away from Isaac his son, eastward, to the land of the east.

Abraham’s Death

7Now these are the days of the years of Abraham’s life that he lived: 175 years.
  8Abraham breathed his last and died at a good old age, old and full of years, and was gathered to his people.
  9And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, that is before Mamre,
  10the field that Abraham purchased from the children of Heth. Abraham was buried there with Sarah his wife.
  11And it came to pass after the death of Abraham that God blessed Isaac his son. Isaac lived by Beer Lahai Roi.

Ishmael’s Family Records

12Now this is the history of the descendants of Ishmael, Abraham’s son whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s slave girl, bore to Abraham.
  13And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to the order of their birth: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth, then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,
  14Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
  15Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.
  16These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names, by their villages and by their encampments, 12 rulers according to their tribal groups.
  17These are the years of the life of Ishmael: 137 years. And he breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people.
  18And he settled from Havilah to Shur, which is east of Egypt as you go toward Assyria. And he lived in hostility to the face of all his brothers.

The Birth of Jacob and Esau

19Now these are the generations of Isaac, son of Abraham. Abraham fathered Isaac.
  20And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan Aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to be his wife.
  21And Isaac prayed to Yahweh for his wife because she was barren, and Yahweh responded to him and Rebekah his wife conceived.
  22But the children struggled mightily together inside her. She said, “If it is so, why am I this way?” And she went to inquire of Yahweh.
  23And Yahweh said to her, “Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples from your belly will be divided. One people will be stronger than the other people; and the elder will serve the younger.”

24And when her days to be give birth were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb.
  25The first came out reddish, and covered with hair all over like a hairy cloak. They named him Esau.
  26After that his brother came out, and his hand was holding on to Esau’s heel. He was named Jacob. Isaac was 60 years old when she bore them.

Esau Sells His Birthright

27The boys grew up. Esau was a skillful hunter, a man of the field. Jacob was a quiet man, living among the tents.
  28Now Isaac loved Esau because he had a taste for his wild game, but Rebekah loved Jacob.

29Once when Jacob was boiling some boiled-stew. Esau came in from the field, and he was exhausted and hungry.
  30And Esau said to Jacob, “Please! Let me gulp down some of that red stuff, that red stuff, because I am exhausted and hungry. So his name was called Edom.

31But Jacob said, “First, sell me your birthright.”

32And Esau said, “Look, I am about to die, so of what use is a birthright to me?”

33Jacob said, “First, swear to me.” So he swore to him, and sold his birthright to Jacob.
  34Then Jacob gave Esau bread and boiled lentils. And he ate and drank and rose up and went off. So Esau showed contempt for his birthright.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 26
The Promise Reaffirmed to Isaac

1Now there was a famine in the land besides the previous famine that had occurred in the days of Abraham. And Isaac went to Gerar, to Abimelech king of the Philistines.
  2And Yahweh appeared to him and said, “Do not go down into Egypt. Continue to live in the land I tell you about.
  3Stay in this land and I will be with you and will bless you. For to you and to your seed I will give all these lands, and I will fulfill the oath that I swore to Abraham your father.
  4I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven and will give to your seed all these lands. And in your seed all the nations of the earth will be blessed,
  5because Abraham listened to my voice and kept my requirements, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.”
  6So Isaac settled in Gerar.

Isaac’s Deception

7And the men of the place asked him about his wife, and he said, “She is my sister,” because he was afraid to say, “My wife.” He thought, “The men of this place might kill me for Rebekah, because she is beautiful to look at.”
  8But it came to pass when he had been there a long time that Abimelech king of the Philistines looked out of a window and saw, and behold, Isaac was caressing Rebekah, his wife.

9So Abimelech called Isaac and said, “Behold, surely she is your wife! So how could you say, ‘She is my sister?’” And Isaac said to him, “Because I said, ‘I might die because of her.’”

10Then Abimelech said, “What is this you have done to us? One of the people might easily have lain with your wife, and you would have brought guilt on us!”
  11And Abimelech commanded all the people, saying, “He who touches this man or his wife will be put to death, yes, death.”

Conflicts over Wells

12Isaac sowed seed in that land, and reaped in that same year a hundredfold; Yahweh blessed him in that way.
  13And the man grew great, and grew more and more until he became very great.
  14He had possessions of flocks, possessions of herds, and a great household. So the Philistines envied him.
  15Now all the wells that his father’s servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped up and filled with earth.
  16And Abimelech said to Isaac, “Go from us, for you are much mightier than we.”

17So Isaac departed from there and encamped in the valley of Gerar and lived there.
  18Then Isaac reopened the wells of water that they had dug in the days of Abraham his father. For the Philistines had stopped them up after the death of Abraham. And he called their names after the names by which his father had called them.
  19Isaac’s servants dug in the valley and found there a well of running water.a
  20The herdsmen of Gerar argued with Isaac’s herdsmen, saying, “The water is ours.” He called the name of the well Esek, because they quarreled with him.
  21They dug another well, and they argued over that also. So he called its name Sitnah.
  22He left that place and dug another well. They did not argue over that one. He called it Rehoboth. He said, “For now Yahweh has made room for us, and we will be fruitful in the land.”

Yahweh Appears to Isaac

23He went up from there to Beer-sheba.
  24Yahweh appeared to him the same night and said, “I am the God of Abraham your father. Do not be afraid, for I am with you and will bless you and multiply your seed for my servant Abraham’s sake.”

25So he built an altar there and called on the name of Yahweh, and pitched his tent there. Isaac’s servants also dug a well there.

Covenant with Abimelech

26Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath his friend, and Phicol the captain of his army.
  27Isaac said to them, “Why have you come to me, since you hate me and have sent me away from you?”

28They said, “We saw plainly that Yahweh was with you. We said, Let there now be an oath between us, even between us and you, and let us cut a covenant with you,
  29that you will do us no harm, as we have not touched you, and as we have done to you nothing but good and have sent you away in peace. You are now the blessed of Yahweh.”

30He made them a feast, and they ate and drank.
  31They rose up some time in the morning and swore one to another. Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace.
  32It came to pass the same day that Isaac’s servants came and told him concerning the well that they had dug, and said to him, “We have found water.”
  33He called it Shibah. Therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba to this day.

Esau’s Wives

34When Esau was forty years old, he took as wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite,
  35and they became a bitterness of spirit to Isaac and to Rebekah.

Lit. “living water”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 27
The Stolen Blessing

1It came to pass that when Isaac was old and his eyes were dim so that he could not see, he called Esau his elder son and said to him, “My son?” He said to him, “Here I am.”

2He said, “See now, I am old. I do not know the day of my death.
  3Now therefore, please take your weapons, your quiver and your bow, and go out to the field and hunt down some wild game for me.
  4Make me delicious food, such as I love, and bring it to me that I may eat, and that my soul may bless you before I die.”

5Rebekah heard when Isaac spoke to Esau his son. Esau went to the field to hunt for wild game and to bring it.
  6Rebekah spoke to Jacob her son, saying, “Behold, I heard your father speak to Esau your brother, saying,
  7‘Bring me wild game and make me savory food, so that I can eat and bless you before Yahweh before my death.’
  8Now therefore, my son, obey my voice according to what I command you.
  9Go now to the flock and get me from there two good young goats. I will make from them savory food for your father, such as he loves.
  10You will bring it to your father so that he can eat, so that he may bless you before his death.”

11But Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, “Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man.
  12What if my father touches me? I will seem to him as a deceiver and I would bring a curse on myself and not a blessing.”

13But his mother said to him, “Let your curse be on me, my son. Only obey my voice, and go get them for me.”

14So he went and got them and brought them to his mother. And his mother made savory food, such as his father loved.
  15Rebekah took the good clothes of Esau, her elder son, that were with her in the house, and put them on Jacob her younger son.
  16She put the skins of the young goats on his hands and on the smooth of his neck.
  17She gave the savory food and the bread that she had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob.

18He came to his father and said, “My father?” He said, “Here I am. Who are you, my son?”

19Jacob said to his father, “I am Esau your firstborn. I have done what you asked me to do. Please arise, sit and eat of my wild game, that your soul may bless me.”

20Isaac said to his son, “How is it that you have found it so quickly, my son?” He said, “Because Yahweh your God gave me success.”

21Isaac said to Jacob, “Please come near, that I may feel you, my son, whether you are really my son Esau or not.”

22Jacob went near to Isaac his father. He felt him and said, “The voice is Jacob’s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau.”
  23So he did not recognize him, because his hands were hairy like his brother Esau’s hands. So he blessed him.
  24He said, “Are you really my son Esau?” He said, “I am.”

25And he said, “Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son’s wild game, that my soul may bless you.” He brought it near to him, and he ate. He brought him wine, and he drank.

26His father Isaac said to him, “Come near now and kiss me, my son.”
  27He came near and kissed him. He smelled the smell of his clothing and blessed him and said, “Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field that Yahweh has blessed.
  28God give you of the dew of heaven, of the fatness of the earth and plenty of grain and new wine.
  29Let peoples serve you and nations bow down to you. Be lord over your brothers. Let your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be everyone who curses you. Blessed be everyone who blesses you.”

30And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac had made an end of blessing Jacob and Jacob had just gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting.
  31He also made savory food and brought it to his father. He said to his father, “Let my father arise and eat of his son’s wild game, that your soul may bless me.”

32Isaac his father said to him, “Who are you?” He said, “I am your son, your firstborn, Esau.”

33then Isaac trembled with an exceedingly great trembling and said, “Who then is he who has hunted game and brought it me, and I have eaten of all of it before you came, and have blessed him? Yes, he will be blessed.”

34When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried out with an exceedingly great and bitter cry, and said to his father, “Bless me, me also, father!”

35But he said, “Your brother came with deceit, and has taken away your blessing.”

36And he said, “Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has supplanted me these two times. He took away my birthright. See, now he has taken away my blessing.” And he said, “Have you not reserved a blessing for me?”

37Isaac answered Esau, “Behold, I have made him your lord, and all his brothers have I given to him for servants. With grain and new wine have I sustained him. What then can I do for you, my son?”

38Esau said to his father, “Have you but one blessing, my father? Bless me, even me also, my father.” Esau lifted up his voice and wept.

39Isaac his father answered him, “Behold, away from the fatness of the earth will be your dwelling-place, and away from the dew of heaven from above.
  40By your sword will you live, and you will serve your brother. It will happen when you will break loose that you will shake his yoke from off your neck.”

Esau’s Anger

41Then Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing with which his father blessed him. And Esau said in his heart, “The days of mourning for my father are at hand. Then I will kill my brother Jacob.”

42The words of Esau, her elder son, were told to Rebekah. She sent and called Jacob her younger son and said to him, “Behold, your brother Esau comforts himself about you by planning to kill you.
  43So now my son, obey my voice. Arise, flee to Laban my brother in Haran
  44and stay with him a few days, until your brother’s fury turns away—
  45until your brother’s anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you have done to him. Then I will send and get you from there. Why should I be bereaved of you both in one day?”

46And Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth such as these, of the daughters of the land, what good will my life be to me?”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 28
Jacob’s Departure

1Isaac called Jacob, blessed him and commanded him, “You must not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan.
  2Arise, go to Paddan Aram to the house of Bethuel your mother’s father. Take a wife from there from the daughters of Laban your mother’s brother.
  3May God Almighty bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you, that you may be a company of peoples,
  4and give you the blessing of Abraham to you and to your seed with you, that you may inherit the land where you travel that God gave to Abraham.”
  5Isaac sent Jacob away. He went to Paddan Aram, to Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, Rebekah’s brother, Jacob’s and Esau’s mother.

6Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan Aram to take him a wife from there, and that as he blessed him he gave him a command, saying, “You must not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan,”
  7and that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother and had gone to Paddan Aram.
  8Esau saw that the daughters of Canaan did not please Isaac his father.
  9Esau went to Ishmael and took, besides the wives that he had, Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife.

Jacob at Bethel

10Jacob went out from Beer-sheba and went toward Haran.
  11He came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set. He took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head and lay down in that place to sleep.
  12He dreamed. Behold, a stairway set upon the earth, and its top reached to heaven. Behold, the angels of God ascending and descending on it.
  13Behold, Yahweh stood above it and said, “I am Yahweh, the God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac. The land on which you are lying, to you I will give it and to your seed.
  14Your seed will be as the dust of the earth, and you will spread abroad to the west and to the east and to the north and to the south. In you and in your seed will all the families of the earth be blessed.
  15Behold, I am with you and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you again into this land. For I will not leave you until I have done what I have spoken of to you.”

16Jacob awakened out of his sleep and he said, “Surely Yahweh is in this place, and I did not know it.”
  17He was afraid and said, “How awe-inspiring is this place! This is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.”

18So Jacob rose up early in the morning and took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up as a standing-stone and poured oil on its top.
  19He called the name of that place Bethel,a but the name of the city was Luz at the first.
  20Jacob vowed a vow, saying, “If God will be with me and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat and clothing to put on,
  21so that I come again to my father’s house in peace, then Yahweh will be my God,
  22and this stone that I have set up for a standing-stone will be a house of God. And of all that you will give me I will give a tenth, yes, a tenth, to you.”

“Bethel” means “house of God”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 29
Jacob Meets Rachel

1Then Jacob went on his journey and came to the land of the children of the east.
  2He looked, and behold, a well in the field, and behold, three flocks of sheep lying there by it. For out of that well they watered the flocks. The stone on the well’s mouth was large.
  3There all the flocks were gathered. They rolled the stone from the well’s mouth and watered the sheep, and put the stone again on the well’s mouth in its place.

4Jacob said to them, “My relatives, where are you from?” They said, “We are from Haran.”

5He said to them, “Do you know Laban the son of Nahor?” They said, “We know him.”

6He said to them, “Is it well with him?” They said, “It is well. See, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep.”

7He said, “Behold, it is still the middle of the day, not time to gather the livestock together. Water the sheep, and go, and feed them.”

8They said, “We cannot until all the flocks are gathered together and they roll the stone from the well’s mouth. Then we water the sheep.”

9While he was yet speaking with them, Rachel came with her father’s sheep, for she kept them.
  10It came to pass when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother’s brother, that Jacob went near and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.
  11Jacob kissed Rachel and lifted up his voice and wept.
  12Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s brother, and that he was Rebekah’s son. She ran and told her father.

Jacob Deceived

13It came to pass when Laban heard the news of Jacob, his sister’s son, that he ran to meet Jacob and embraced him and kissed him and brought him to his house. Jacob told Laban all these things.

14Laban said to him, “Surely you are my bone and my flesh.” He lived with him for a month.
  15Laban said to Jacob, “Because you are my brother, should you therefore serve me for nothing? Tell me, what will your wages be?”

16Laban had two daughters. The name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel.
  17Leah’s eyes were weak, but Rachel was beautiful in form and attractive.
  18Jacob loved Rachel. He said, “I will serve you seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter.”

19Laban said, “It is better that I give her to you than that I should give her to another man. Stay with me.”
  20Jacob served seven years for Rachel. They seemed to him but a few days for the love he had for her.

21Jacob said to Laban, “Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled that I may go in to her.”
  22Laban gathered together all the men of the place and made a feast.
  23It came to pass in the evening that he took Leah his daughter and brought her to him, and he went in to her.
  24Laban gave Zilpah his slave to his daughter Leah for a slave.

25It came to pass in the morning that, behold, it was Leah. He said to Laban, “What is this you have done to me? Didn’t I serve with you for Rachel? Why then have you deceived me?”

26Laban said, “It is not done so in our place, to give the younger before the firstborn.
  27Fulfill the week of this one, and we will give you the other also for the service that you will serve with me yet seven other years.”

28Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week. He gave him Rachel his daughter as wife.
  29Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah, his slave, to be her slave.
  30He went in also to Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.

Jacob’s Sons

31Yahweh saw that Leah was hated, and he opened her womb, but Rachel was barren.
  32Leah conceived and bore a son, and she named him Reuben. For she said, “Indeed, Yahweh has looked at my affliction! Indeed, now my husband will love me!”

33She conceived again and bore a son, and said, “Because Yahweh has heard that I am hated, he has therefore given me this son also.” She named him Simeon.

34She conceived again and bore a son and said, “Now this time will my husband be joined to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore his name was called Levi.

35She conceived again, and bore a son. She said, “This time I will praise Yahweh.” Therefore she named him Judah. Then she stopped bearing.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 30

1When Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children, or else I will die.”

2Jacob’s anger was kindled against Rachel, and he said, “Am I in God’s place, who has withheld from you the fruit of the womb?”

3She said, “Behold, my maid Bilhah. Go in to her, that she may bear on my knees, and I also may obtain children by her.”
  4She gave him Bilhah her slave as wife, and Jacob went in to her.
  5Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son.
  6Rachel said, “God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and has given me a son.” So she called his name Dan.

7Bilhah Rachel’s slave conceived again, and bore Jacob a second son.
  8Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” So she named him Naphtali.

9When Leah saw that she had finished bearing, she took Zilpah her slave and gave her to Jacob as a wife.
  10Zilpah Leah’s slave bore Jacob a son.
  11Leah said, “How fortunate!” So she called his name Gad.

12Zilpah Leah’s slave bore Jacob a second son.
  13Leah said, “Happy am I, for the daughters will call me happy.” So she called his name Asher.

14Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest and found mandrakes in the field and brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Please give me some of your son’s mandrakes.”

15She said to her, “Is it a small matter that you have taken away my husband? Would you take away my son’s mandrakes also?” Rachel said, “Then he may lie with you tonight in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”

16Jacob came from the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must come in to me, for I have surely hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” So he lay with her that night.

17God listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son.
  18Leah said, “God has given me my hire, because I gave my slave to my husband.” She named him Issachar.

19Leah conceived again, and bore a sixth son to Jacob.
  20Leah said, “God has endowed me with a good dowry. Now my husband will live with me, because I have borne him six sons.” She named him Zebulun.
  21Afterwards she bore a daughter and named her Dinah.

22God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her and opened her womb.
  23She conceived, bore a son and said, “God has taken away my reproach.”
  24She named him Joseph, saying, “May Yahweh add another son to me.”

Jacob’s Flocks Multiply

25It came to pass when Rachel had borne Joseph that Jacob said to Laban, “Send me away, that I may go to my own place and to my country.
  26Give me my wives and my children for whom I have served you, and let me go, for you know my service with which I have served you.”

27Laban said to him, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, stay here, for I have divined that Yahweh has blessed me for your sake.”
  28He said, “Appoint me your wages, and I will give it.”

29He said to him, “You know how I have served you, and how your livestock have fared with me.
  30For it was little that you had before I came, and it has increased to a multitude. Yahweh has blessed you wherever I turned. Now when will I provide for my own house also?”

31He said, “What should I give you?” Jacob said, “You do not need to give me anything. If you will do this thing for me, I will again feed your flock and keep it:
  32I will pass through all your flock today, removing from there every speckled and spotted one and every black one among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats. This will be my hire.
  33So my righteousness will answer for me in the future, when you come concerning my hire that is before you. Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats and black among the sheep that might be with me will be counted stolen.”

34Laban said, “Behold, let it be according to your word.”

35That day he removed the male goats that were streaked and spotted, and all the female goats that were speckled and spotted, every one that had white in it, and all the black ones among the sheep, and gave them into the hand of his sons.
  36He set three days’ journey between himself and Jacob, and Jacob fed the rest of Laban’s flocks.

37Jacob took to himself rods of fresh poplar, almond, and plane tree, peeled white streaks in them, and made the white appear that was in the rods.
  38He set the rods that he had peeled opposite the flocks in the gutters in the watering–troughs where the flocks came to drink. They conceived when they came to drink.
  39The flocks conceived before the rods and the flocks produced streaked, speckled, and spotted.
  40Jacob separated the lambs and set the faces of the flocks toward the streaked and all the black in the flock of Laban. And he put his own droves apart and didn’t put them into Laban’s flock.

41It came to pass whenever the stronger of the flock conceived that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the flock in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods;
  42but when the flock were feeble he didn’t put them in. So the feebler were Laban‘s, and the stronger Jacob’s.
  43The man increased exceedingly and had large flocks, female servants and male servants, and camels and donkeys.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 31
Jacob Separates from Laban

1He heard the words of Laban’s sons, saying, “Jacob has taken away all that was our father‘s. From what was our father’s has he gotten all this wealth.”
  2Jacob saw the expression on Laban’s face, and behold, it was not toward him as before.

3Yahweh said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers and to your relatives, and I will be with you.”

4Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock
  5and said to them, “I see the expression on your father’s face, that it is not toward me as before; but the God of my father has been with me.
  6You know that I have served your father with all of my strength.
  7Your father has deceived me and changed my wages ten times, but God didn’t allow him to hurt me.
  8If he said this, ‘The speckled will be your wages,’ then all the flock bore speckled. If he said this, ‘The streaked will be your wages,’ then all the flock bore streaked.
  9Thus God has taken away your father’s livestock and given them to me.

10It came to pass during mating season that I lifted up my eyes and saw in a dream, and behold, the male goats that leaped on the flock were streaked, speckled, and spotted.
  11The angel of God said to me in the dream, ‘Jacob,’ and I said, ‘Here I am.’
  12He said, ‘Now lift up your eyes, and behold, all the male goats that leap on the flock are streaked, speckled, and spotted, for I have seen all that Laban does to you.
  13I am the God of Bethel, where you anointed a standing-stone, where you vowed a vow to me. Now arise, get out from this land and return to the land of your birth.’”

14Rachel and Leah answered him, “Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us in our father’s house?
  15Aren’t we accounted by him as foreigners? For he has sold us, and has also quite devoured our money.
  16For all the riches that God has taken away from our father, that is ours and our children’s. Now then, whatever God has said to you, do.”

17Then Jacob rose up and set his sons and his wives on the camels,
  18and he took away all his livestock, and all his possessions that he had gathered, including the livestock that he had gained in Paddan Aram, to go to Isaac his father to the land of Canaan.
  19Now Laban had gone to shear his sheep, and Rachel stole the teraphima that were her father’s.
  20Jacob deceived Laban the Syrian, in that he didn’t tell him that he was running away.
  21So he fled with all that he had. He rose up, passed over the River, and set his face toward the mountain of Gilead.

Laban Overtakes Jacob

22Laban was told on the third day that Jacob had fled.
  23He took his relatives with him and pursued after him seven days’ journey. He overtook him in the mountain of Gilead.
  24God came to Laban the Syrian in a dream of the night and said to him, “Take heed to yourself that you do not speak to Jacob, either good or bad.”

25Laban caught up with Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the mountain, and Laban with his relatives encamped in the mountain of Gilead.
  26Laban said to Jacob, “What have you done, that you have deceived me and carried away my daughters like captives of the sword?
  27Why did you flee secretly and deceive me, and did not tell me, that I might have sent you away with mirth and with songs, with tambourine and with harp,
  28and didn’t allow me to kiss my sons and my daughters? Now have you done foolishly.
  29It is in the power of my hand to hurt you, but the God of your father spoke to me last night, saying, ‘Take heed to yourself that you do not speak to Jacob, either good or bad.’
  30Now you want to be gone because you greatly longed for your father’s house, but why have you stolen my gods?”

31Jacob answered Laban, “Because I was afraid, for I said, ‘Lest you should take your daughters from me by force.’
  32Anyone you find your gods with will not live. Before our relatives discern what is yours with me, and take it.” For Jacob didn’t know that Rachel had stolen them.

33Laban went into Jacob’s tent, into Leah’s tent and into the tent of the two female servants, but he didn’t find them. He went out of Leah’s tent and entered into Rachel’s tent.
  34Now Rachel had taken the teraphimb and put them in the camel’s saddlebag and sat on them. Laban felt about all the tent but did not find them.

35She said to her father, “Let no anger be in the eyes of my Lord that I cannot rise up before you, for the way of women is upon me.” And he searched but did not find the teraphim.

Jacob’s Covenant with Laban

36Jacob was angry and argued with Laban. Jacob answered Laban, “What is my trespass? What is my sin, that you have hotly pursued after me?
  37Now that you have felt around in all my stuff, what have you found of all your household stuff? Set it here before my relatives and your relatives, that they may judge between us two.
  38“These twenty years I have been with you. Your ewes and your female goats have not cast their young, and I haven’t eaten the rams of your flocks.
  39What was torn of animals, I didn’t bring to you. I bore its loss. Of my hand you required it, whether stolen by day or stolen by night.
  40This was my situation: in the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night, and my sleep fled from my eyes.
  41These twenty years I have been in your house. I served you 14 years for your two daughters, and six years for your flock, and you have changed my wages ten times.
  42Unless the God of my father, the God of Abraham and the fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely now you would have sent me away empty. God has seen my affliction and the labor of my hands and rebuked you last night.”

43Laban answered Jacob, “The daughters are my daughters, the children are my children, the flocks are my flocks, and all that you see is mine. And what can I do this day to these my daughters or to their children whom they have borne?
  44Now come, let us cut a covenant, you and I. And let it be for a witness between me and you.”

45Jacob took a stone and set it up for a standing-stone.
  46Jacob said to his relatives, “Gather stones.” They took stones and made a heap. They ate there by the heap.
  47Laban called it Jegar Sahadutha, but Jacob called it Galeed.

48Laban said, “This heap is witness between me and you this day.” Therefore it was named Galeed
  49and Mizpah, for he said, “Yahweh watch between me and you, when we are absent one from another.
  50If you afflict my daughters, or if you take wives besides my daughters, no man is with us; behold, God is witness between me and you.”
  51Laban said to Jacob, “See this heap and see the standing-stone that I have set between me and you.
  52May this heap be a witness, and the standing-stone be a witness, that I will not pass over this heap to you, and that you will not pass beyond this heap and this standing-stone to do me harm.
  53The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor, the God of their father, judge between us.” Then Jacob swore by the fear of his father Isaac.
  54Jacob offered a sacrifice in the mountain and called his relatives to eat bread. They ate bread and stayed all night in the mountain.
  55Early in the morning Laban rose up and kissed his sons and his daughters and blessed them. Laban departed and returned to his place.

Teraphim were household gods
Teraphim were household gods

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Go to Commentary on Gen 32
Preparing to Meet Esau

1And Jacob went on his way, and the angels of God met him.
  2When he saw them, Jacob said, “This is God’s camp.” He called the name of that place Mahanaim.

3And Jacob sent messengers ahead of him to Esau his brother in the land of Seir, the country of Edom.
  4He commanded them, saying, “This is what you are to say to my lord Esau: This is what your servant Jacob says: ‘I have been living as a foreigner with Laban and remained there until now.
  5I have oxen, donkeys, flocks, male servants, and female servants. I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find favor in your eyes.’”

6The messengers returned to Jacob, saying, “We came to your brother Esau, and furthermore, he is coming to meet you and there are 400 men with him.”
  7Then Jacob was greatly afraid and was distressed. And he divided the people who were with him, and the flocks and the herds and the camels, into two camps.
  8And he said, “If Esau comes to the one camp and attacks it, then the camp that is left will escape.”

9And Jacob said, “God of my father Abraham and God of my father Isaac, O Yahweh who said to me, ‘Return to your land and to your relatives, and I will do you good,’
  10I am not worthy of the least of all the faithfulness and of all the truth that you have shown to your servant, for with just my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I have become two camps.
  11Please deliver me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau. For I am afraid of him, lest he come and strike me, and the mothers with the children.
  12But you yourself said, ‘I will surely do you good, and make your seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be counted because there are so many.’”

13And he stayed there that night, and from what he had with him he took a present for Esau his brother:
  14200 female goats and twenty male goats, 200 ewes and twenty rams,
  15thirty milk camels and their colts, forty cows, ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten foals.
  16He delivered them into the hands of his servants, every herd by itself, and said to his servants, “Cross over ahead of me and put a space between herd and herd.”

17And he commanded the first group, saying, “When Esau my brother meets you and asks you, saying, ‘To whom do you belong?’ and ‘Where are you going?’ and ‘Whose are these before you?’
  18then you are to say, ‘They are your servant Jacob’s. It is a present sent to my lord, to Esau, and behold, he himself is also behind us.‘”

19And he also commanded the second and the third and all that followed the herds, saying, “This is how you are to speak to Esau when you come upon him,
  20and you are to say, ‘Furthermore, look, your servant Jacob is behind us.’” For he said, “I will appease his face with the present that goes ahead of my face; and afterward I will see his face. Perhaps he will accept me.”

21So the present crossed the Jabbok River over ahead of his face, whereas he himself spent the night in the camp.
  22He arose during that night and took his two wives, and his two female slaves, and his 11 sons, and crossed over the ford of the Jabbok.
  23He took them and sent them across the stream, and sent across whatever he had.

Jacob Wrestles with an Angel

24And Jacob was left alone. And a man wrestled with him until the breaking of the day.
  25And when he saw that he did not prevail against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh, and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained as he wrestled with him.
  26The man said, “Let me go, for the dawn is breaking.” Jacob said, “I won’t let you go unless you bless me.”

27And he said to him, “What is your name?” And he said, “Jacob.”

28And he said, “Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel, because you have fought with God and with men, and have prevailed.”

29Jacob asked him, “Please tell me your name.” But he said, “Why is it that you ask what my name is?” And he blessed him there.

30Jacob called the name of the place Peniel,a for he said, “I have seen God face to face and yet my life has been spared.”
  31The sun rose on him as he passed by Peniel, and he limped because of his thigh.
  32Therefore the children of Israel do not eat the tendon of the hip that is on the hollow of the thigh to this day, because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh near the tendon of the hip.

Peniel means “face of God.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 33
Jacob Meets Esau

1Jacob lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, Esau was coming, and with him 400 men. He divided the children between Leah, Rachel and the two slave girls.
  2He put the slaves and their children in front, Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph at the rear.
  3He himself passed over in front of them, and bowed down to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.

4Esau ran to meet him, embraced him, fell on his neck, kissed him, and they wept.
  5He lifted up his eyes and saw the women and the children, and said, “Who are these with you?” He said, “The children whom God has graciously given your servant.”
  6Then the female slaves came near, with their children, and they bowed down.
  7Leah also and her children came near and bowed down. After them, Joseph came near with Rachel, and they bowed down.

8Esau said, “What do you mean by all this company that I met?” Jacob said, “To find favor in the eyes of my lord.”

9Esau said, “I have enough, my brother; let what you have be yours.”

10Jacob said, “No, please! If I have now found favor in your eyes, then receive my present at my hand, because I have seen your face as one sees the face of God, and you were pleased with me.
  11Please take the gift that I brought to you, because God has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough.” He urged him, and he took it.

12Esau said, “Let us take our journey and let us go, and I will go before you.”

13Jacob said to him, “My lord knows that the children are tender, and that the flocks and herds with me have their young, and if they overdrive them one day, all the flocks will die.
  14Please let my lord pass over before his servant, and I will lead on gently, according to the pace of the livestock that are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my lord to Seir.”

15Esau said, “Let me now leave with you some of the folk who are with me.” He said, “Why? Let me find favor in the eyes of my lord.”

16So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir.
  17Jacob traveled to Succoth, built himself a house and made shelters for his livestock. Therefore the name of the place is called Succoth.

18Jacob came in peace to the city of Shechem that is in the land of Canaan, when he came from Paddan Aram, and encamped before the city.
  19He bought the parcel of ground where he had spread his tent at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for 100 qisitah.a
  20He erected an altar there and called it El Elohe Israel.

A qisitah is an unknown unit of money.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 34
Dinah Defiled

1Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land.
  2Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the ruler of the land, saw her. He took her, lay with her and defiled her.
  3His soul joined to Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the young woman and spoke kindly to the young woman.
  4Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get me this young woman as a wife.”

5Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter, and his sons were with his livestock in the field. Jacob held his peace until they came.
  6Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to talk with him.
  7The sons of Jacob came in from the field when they heard it. The men were grieved and they were very angry, because he had done folly in Israel in lying with Jacob’s daughter, a thing that ought not to be done.

8Hamor talked with them, saying, “The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter. Please give her to him as a wife.
  9Make marriages with us. Give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves.
  10You will dwell with us, and the land will be before you. Live and trade in it, and get possessions in it.”

11Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you will tell me I will give.
  12Ask me a great amount for a dowry, and I will give whatever you ask of me, but give me the young lady as a wife.”

13The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father with deceit, and spoke, because he had defiled Dinah their sister,
  14and said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one who is uncircumcised, for that is a reproach to us.
  15Only on this condition will we consent to you–if you will be as we are, that every male of you be circumcised.
  16Then will we give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you and we will become one people.
  17But if you will not listen to us to be circumcised, then we will take our sister, and we will be gone.”

18Their words pleased Hamor and Shechem, Hamor’s son.
  19The young man did not wait to do this thing, because he had delight in Jacob’s daughter and he was honored above all the house of his father.
  20Hamor and Shechem his son came to the gate of their city and talked with the men of their city, saying,

21“These men are peaceful with us. Therefore let them live in the land and trade in it. For behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters.
  22Only on this condition will the men consent to us to live with us to become one people: if every male among us is circumcised as they are circumcised.
  23Won’t their livestock, and their possessions and all their animals be ours? Only let us give our consent to them, and they will dwell with us.”

24All who went out of the gate of his city listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son, and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.
  25It came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of Jacob’s sons, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his sword, came upon the unsuspecting city and killed all the males.
  26They killed Hamor and Shechem his son with the mouth of the sword and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house and went away.
  27Jacob’s sons came on the dead and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister.
  28They took their flocks, their herds, their donkeys, whatever was in the city, whatever was in the field
  29and all their wealth. They took captive all their little ones and their wives, and took as plunder everything that was in the house.

30Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have troubled me to make me stink to the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I am few in number. They will gather themselves together against me and strike me, and I will be destroyed, I and my house.”

31They said, “Should he deal with our sister as with a prostitute?”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 35
Return to Bethel

1God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel and live there. Make there an altar to God who appeared to you when you fled from the face of Esau your brother.”

2Then Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves, change your garments.
  3Let us arise and go up to Bethel. I will make an altar there to the God who answered me in the day of my distress and was with me on whichever road I traveled.”

4They gave to Jacob all the foreign gods that were in their hands, and the rings that were in their ears, and Jacob hid them under the oak that was by Shechem.
  5They traveled, and a terror from God was on the cities that were around them so that they did not pursue the sons of Jacob.
  6So Jacob came to Luz (that is, Bethel), that is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him.
  7He built an altar there and called the place El Bethel, because there God was revealed to him when he fled from the face of his brother.

8Deborah, the one who had nursed and raised Rebekah, died, and she was buried below Bethel under the oak; and its name was called Allon Bacuth.

9God appeared to Jacob again, when he came from Paddan Aram, and blessed him.
  10God said to him, “Your name is Jacob. Your name will not be Jacob any more, but your name will be Israel.” He named him Israel.
  11God said to him, “I am God Almighty: be fruitful and multiply. A nation and a company of nations will be from you, and kings will come out of your body.
  12The land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac I will give it to you, and to your seed after you I will give the land.”

13God went up from him in the place where he spoke with him.

14Jacob set up a standing-stone in the place where he spoke with him, a pillar of stone. He poured out a drink offering on it and poured oil on it.
  15Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with him “Bethel.”

Rachel’s Death

16They traveled from Bethel. There was still some distance to come to Ephrath, and Rachel travailed. She had hard labor.
  17When she was in hard labor the midwife said to her, “Do not be afraid, for now you will have another son.”
  18It came to pass as her soul was departing (for she died) that she named him Benoni; but his father named him Benjamin.
  19Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath (which is Bethlehem).
  20Jacob set up a standing-stone on her grave, which is the standing-stone marking of Rachel’s grave to this day.

Israel’s Sons

21Israel traveled and spread his tent beyond the tower of Eder.
  22It came to pass while Israel lived in that land that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine, and Israel heard of it. Now the sons of Jacob were 12.

23The sons of Leah: Reuben (Jacob’s firstborn), Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.
  24The sons of Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin.
  25The sons of Bilhah (Rachel’s slave): Dan and Naphtali.
  26The sons of Zilpah (Leah’s slave): Gad and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan Aram.

Isaac’s Death

27Jacob came to Isaac his father, to Mamre, to Kiriath-arba (which is Hebron), where Abraham and Isaac lived as foreigners.
  28The days of Isaac were 180 years.
  29Isaac breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people, old and full of days. Esau and Jacob his sons buried him.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 36
Esau’s Family

1Now this is the history of the descendants of Esau (that is, Edom).
  2Esau took his wives from the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite,
  3and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebaioth.
  4Adah bore to Esau, Eliphaz; Basemath bore Reuel;
  5Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These are the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.

6Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the members of his household, with his livestock, all his animals, and all his possessions that he had gathered in the land of Canaan, and went into a land away from his brother Jacob.
  7For their substance was too great for them to dwell together, and the land of their travels could not support them because of their livestock.
  8Esau lived in the hill country of Seir. Esau is Edom.

9This is the history of the descendants of Esau the father of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir;
  10These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, and Reuel the son of Basemath the wife of Esau.
  11The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam and Kenaz.
  12Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, Esau’s son, and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek. These are the sons of Adah, Esau’s wife.
  13These are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife.
  14These were the sons of Oholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, Esau’s wife: she bore to Esau Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.
  15These are the chiefs of the sons of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn of Esau: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz,
  16chief Korah, chief Gatam, chief Amalek; these are the chiefs who came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Adah.
  17These are the sons of Reuel, Esau’s son: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, chief Mizzah; these are the chiefs who came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Basemath, Esau’s wife.
  18These are the sons of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife: chief Jeush, chief Jalam, chief Korah. These are the chiefs who came of Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau’s wife.
  19These are the sons of Esau (that is, Edom), and these are their chiefs.

Seir’s Family

20These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,
  21Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These are the chiefs who came of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom.
  22The children of Lotan were Hori and Heman. Lotan’s sister was Timna.
  23These are the children of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.
  24These are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. This is Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness, as he fed the donkeys of Zibeon his father.
  25These are the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah the daughter of Anah.
  26These are the children of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran.
  27These are the children of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.
  28These are the children of Dishan: Uz and Aran.
  29These are the chiefs who came of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah,
  30chief Dishon, chief Ezer, and chief Dishan. These are the chiefs who came of the Horites, according to their chiefs in the land of Seir.

Rulers of Edom

31These are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before any king reigned over the children of Israel.
  32Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom. The name of his city was Dinhabah.
  33Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his place.
  34Jobab died, and Husham of the land of the Temanites reigned in his place.
  35Husham died, and Hadad the son of Bedad, who struck Midian in the field of Moab, reigned in his place. The name of his city was Avith.
  36Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place.
  37Samlah died, and Shaul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his place.
  38Shaul died, and Baal Hanan the son of Achbor reigned in his place.
  39Baal Hanan the son of Achbor died, and Hadar reigned in his place. The name of his city was Pau. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.
  40These are the names of the chiefs who came from Esau, according to their families, according to their places, and by their names: chief Timna, chief Alvah, chief Jetheth,
  41chief Oholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon,
  42chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar,
  43chief Magdiel, and chief Iram. These are the chiefs of Edom, according to their habitations in the land of their possession. This is Esau, the father of the Edomites.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 37
Joseph’s Dreams

1Now Jacob lived in the land where his father had lived as a foreigner, in the land of Canaan.
  2These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being 17 years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers. He was a young man working together with the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, his father’s wives; and Joseph brought an evil report of them to their father.

3Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age, and he made him an ornamented tunic.
  4But when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him and could not speak peaceably to him.

5And Joseph dreamed a dream and he told it to his brothers, and they hated him even more.
  6And he said to them, “Please listen to this dream that I have dreamed,
  7for behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and behold, my sheaf arose and also stood upright. And behold, your sheaves came around and bowed down to my sheaf.”

8And his brothers said to him, “Will you reign, yes, reign as king over us? Or will you rule, yes, rule us?” So they hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

9Then he dreamed yet another dream and told it to his brothers and said, “Behold, I have dreamed another dream. And behold, the sun, and the moon, and 11 stars were bowing down to me.”

10When he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him and said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Will we come, yes, come, I and your mother and your brothers, and bow down to the ground before you ?”
  11His brothers envied him, but his father kept the matter in mind.

Joseph Sold into Slavery

12Now his brothers went to feed their father’s flock in Shechem.
  13And Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers pasturing the flock at Shechem? Come, and I will send you to them.” And he said to him, “Here I am.”

14And he said to him, “Go now, see whether it is well with your brothers and well with the flock, and bring back word to me.” So he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

15And a certain man found him, and behold, he was wandering in the countryside. And the man asked him, saying, “What are you looking for?”

16And he said, “I am looking for my brothers. Please tell me where they are pasturing the flock.”

17And the man said, “They have left here, for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’” And Joseph went after his brothers and found them in Dothan.

18When they saw him from a distance and before he came close to them they conspired against him to kill him.
  19They said one to another, “Look! This master of dreams is coming.
  20So now, come, and let’s kill him and throw him into one of the cisterns, and we will say a wild animal has devoured him. Then we will see what will become of his dreams.”

21And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands and said, “Let’s not take his life.”
  22And Reuben said to them, “Shed no blood! Throw him into this cistern that is in the wilderness, but do not lay your hands on him”—so that he could deliver him out of their hand to restore him to his father.

23So it was that when Joseph came to his brothers that they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the ornamented tunic that he had on,
  24and they took him and threw him into the cistern. Now the cistern was empty—no water was in it.

25Then they sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes and looked and saw a caravan of Ishmaelites was coming from Gilead, with their camels carrying spices and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.

26Then Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it if we kill our brother and cover up his blood?
  27Come, and let’s sell him to the Ishmaelites, and not let our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh.” And his brothers listened to him.
  28And some Midianite men who were merchants passed by, and the brothers pulled him up and drew Joseph out of the cistern, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver, and they brought Joseph to Egypt.

29And Reuben returned to the cistern and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit, so he tore his clothes.
  30and he returned to his brothers and said, “The child is no more! And I, where am I to go?”
  31So they took Joseph’s tunic and slaughtered a he-goat and dipped the coat in the blood.
  32Then they took the ornamented tunic and they brought it to their father and said, “We have found this. Examine it now, whether it is your son’s tunic or not.”

33And he recognized it and said, “It is my son’s tunic. A wild animal has devoured him. Joseph is torn; torn to pieces.”
  34Jacob tore his clothes and put sackcloth on his waist and mourned for his son many days.
  35All his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted. He said, “No. I will go down to Sheol to my son, mourning.” And his father wept for him.

36Meanwhile, the Midianites sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 38
Judah and Tamar

1It came to pass at that time that Judah went down from his brothers and visited a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.
  2Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite whose name was Shua. He took her and went in to her.
  3She conceived and bore a son, and he named him Er.
  4She conceived again and bore a son, and she named him Onan.
  5She yet again bore a son, and named him Shelah; and he was at Chezib when she bore him.

6Judah took a wife for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar.
  7Er, Judah’s firstborn, was wicked in the eyes of Yahweh, so Yahweh killed him.
  8So Judah said to Onan, “Go in to your brother’s wife and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her, and raise up seed to your brother.”
  9But Onan knew that the seed would not be his, so it came to pass when he went in to his brother’s wife that he wasted it on the ground, in order not to give seed to his brother.
  10But what he did was evil in the eyes of Yahweh, and he killed him also.

11Then Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, “Remain a widow in your father’s house, until Shelah my son has grown up.” For he said to himself, “Lest he also die, like his brothers.” Tamar went and lived in her father’s house.

12Now after many days Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died. When Judah was comforted, he went up to his sheepshearers to Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite.
  13And it was told to Tamar, saying, “Behold, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep.”
  14So she took off of her the garments of her widowhood and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the gate of Enaim that is on the road to Timnah, for she saw that Shelah was grown up but she had not been given to him as a wife.
  15And when Judah saw her, he thought that she was a prostitute, because she had covered her face.

16So he turned to her by the road and said, “Come now, let me come in to you,” for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law. She said, “What will you give me so that you may come in to me?”

17And he said, “I will send you a young goat from the flock.” And she said, “Will you give me a pledge until you send it?”

18And he said, “What pledge should I give you?” Then she said, “Your seal and your cord and your staff that is in your hand.” He gave them to her and went in to her, and she conceived by him.
  19Then she arose and went away and took off her veil and put on the garments of her widowhood.

20And Judah sent the young goat by the hand of his friend the Adullamite to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand, but he did not find her.
  21Then he asked the men of her place, saying, “Where is the temple prostitute who was beside the road at Enaim?” But they said, “No temple prostitute has been here.”

22So he returned to Judah and said, “I did not find her, and also the men of the place said, ‘No temple prostitute has been here.’”

23So Judah said, “Let her keep them for herself, lest we be shamed. Behold, I sent this young goat but you, you could not find her.”

24Now about three months later it was told to Judah, saying, “Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed prostitution, and moreover, look, she is with child by prostitution.” Judah said, “Bring her out and let her be burned.”

25But when she was brought out, she sent to her father-in-law, saying, “By the man to whom these belong I am with child.” She also said, “Please identify whose these are; the seal and the cords and the staff.”

26And Judah acknowledged them and said, “She is more righteous than I, because I did not give her to Shelah my son.” But he knew her again no more.

27Now it came to pass in the time of her travail that behold, twins were in her womb.
  28And it was, as she was giving birth, one put out a hand, and the midwife took and tied a scarlet thread on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.”
  29But it came to pass as he drew back his hand that, behold, his brother came out! So she said, “What a breach you have made for yourself!” So his name was called Perez.
  30Afterward his brother came out, the one who had the scarlet thread on his hand, and his name was called Zerah.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 39
Joseph in Potiphar’s House

1Joseph was brought down to Egypt. Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him from the hand of the Ishmaelites that had brought him down there.
  2But Yahweh was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man. He was in the house of his master the Egyptian.
  3His master saw that Yahweh was with him and that Yahweh made all that he did prosper in his hand.
  4Joseph found favor in his eyes, and he attended him. And Potiphar made him overseer over his house and put all that he had into his hand.
  5It came to pass from the time that he made him overseer in his house and over all that he had that Yahweh blessed the Egyptian’s house for Joseph’s sake; and the blessing of Yahweh was on all that he had, in the house and in the field.
  6So he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand. He did not concern himself with anything except for the food that he ate. Joseph was well-built and handsome.
  7It came to pass after these things that his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph and she said, “Lie with me.”

8But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, my master does not know what is with me in the house, and he has put all that he has into my hand.
  9There is no one greater in this household than I am, and he has not kept back anything from me but you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?”

10And as she spoke to Joseph day after day, he did not listen to her, to lie beside her, to be with her—
  11so it came to pass, on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work, and there were none of the men of the house inside,
  12that she grabbed him by his garment, saying, “Lie with me!” But he left his garment in her hand and ran outside.
  13And when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand and had run outside,
  14she called to the men of her house and spoke to them, saying, “Behold, he has brought in a Hebrew to us to mock us. He came in to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice.
  15And it came to pass when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried out, that he left his garment by me and ran outside.”

16She laid up his garment by her until his master came home.
  17She spoke to him according to these words, saying, “The Hebrew servant, whom you have brought to us, came in to me to mock me,
  18but as soon as I lifted up my voice and cried out, he left his garment with me and ran outside.”

19It came to pass when his master heard the words of his wife that she spoke to him, saying, “This is what your servant did to me,” that his wrath was kindled.
  20Then Joseph’s master took him and put him into the prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were bound, and he was there in the prison.

Joseph in Prison

21But Yahweh was with Joseph and showed kindness to him and gave him favor in the eyes of the keeper of the prison.
  22The keeper of the prison committed to Joseph’s hand all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever they did there, he was responsible for it.
  23The keeper of the prison did not look after anything that was under Joseph’s hand because Yahweh was with him, and whatever he did, Yahweh made it prosper.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 40
Joseph Interprets Two Prisoners’ Dreams

1It came to pass after these things that the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker committed an offense against their lord the king of Egypt.
  2And Pharaoh was angry with his two officers—against the chief cupbearer and the chief baker.
  3So he put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where Joseph was bound.
  4And the captain of the guard assigned them to Joseph, and he took care of them. And they stayed in prison many days.

5And they both dreamed a dream, each man his own dream on the same night. Each man dreamed according to the interpretation of his own dream, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt who were bound in the prison.
  6When Joseph came in to them in the morning and looked at them, behold, they were sad.
  7He asked Pharaoh’s officers who were with him in custody in his master’s house, saying, “Why do you look so sad today?”

8They said to him, “We have dreamed a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it.” Joseph said to them, “Do not interpretations belong to God? Please tell it to me.”

9The chief cupbearer told his dream to Joseph and said to him, “In my dream, behold, a vine was in front of me,
  10and in the vine were three branches. It was as though it budded, it blossomed, and its clusters produced ripe grapes.
  11Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand, and I took the grapes and pressed them into Pharaoh’s cup and I gave the cup into Pharaoh’s hand.”

12Joseph said to him, “This is its interpretation: the three branches are three days.
  13Within three more days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your office. You will give Pharaoh’s cup into his hand the way you did when you were his cupbearer.
  14But remember me, when it will be well with you, and please show kindness to me and make mention of me to Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house.
  15For indeed, I was stolen, yes, stolen from the land of the Hebrews, and here also have I done nothing that they should put me into the dungeon.”

16When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said to Joseph, “I also was in my dream: and behold, three baskets of white bread were on my head.
  17In the uppermost basket there was all kinds of baked food for Pharaoh, and the birds ate them out of the basket on my head.”

18Joseph answered, “This is its interpretation: the three baskets are three days.
  19Within three more days, Pharaoh will lift up your head from off you and will hang you on a tree, and the birds will eat your flesh from off you.”

20It came to pass the third day, which was Pharaoh’s birthday, that he made a feast for all his servants and he lifted up the head of the chief cupbearer and the head of the chief baker among his servants.
  21He restored the chief cupbearer to his position again, and he gave the cup into Pharaoh’s hand;
  22but he hanged the chief baker, as Joseph had interpreted to them.
  23Yet the chief cupbearer didn’t remember Joseph, but forgot him.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 41
Joseph Interprets Pharaoh’s Dreams

1It came to pass at the end of two full years that Pharaoh dreamed, and behold, he stood by the river.
  2And behold, seven attractive and fat cows came up out of the river, and they fed in the marsh grass.
  3And behold, after them seven other cows came up out of the river, ugly and thin, and they stood beside the other cows at the edge of the river.
  4The ugly and thin cows ate up the seven attractive and fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.
  5And he fell asleep and dreamed a second time, and behold, seven heads of grain came up on one stalk, plump and good.
  6And behold, seven heads of grain, thin and scorched by the east wind, sprouted up after them.
  7And the thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven plump, full ears. And Pharaoh woke up, and behold, it was a dream.

8And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled, and he sent and called for all of Egypt’s magicians and wise men. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them to Pharaoh.

9Then the chief cupbearer spoke to Pharaoh, saying, “Today I am reminded of my faults.
  10Pharaoh was angry with his servants and put me in custody in the house of the captain of his bodyguard, both me and the chief baker.
  11We dreamed a dream on the same night, he and I. Each man dreamed a dream with its own interpretation.
  12There was there with us a young man, a Hebrew, a slave of the captain of the bodyguard, and we told them to him, and he interpreted our dreams for us. He interpreted for each man according to his own dream.
  13And it came to pass that just as he interpreted to us, so it happened: me, he restored to my office, but him he hanged.”

14Then Pharaoh sent and called for Joseph, and they quickly brought him out of the dungeon. He shaved, changed his clothing, and came before Pharaoh.

15Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have dreamed a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heard it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.”

16Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, “It isn’t in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer.”

17Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, “In my dream, behold, I stood on the brink of the river.
  18And behold, there came up out of the river seven cattle, fat and sleek. They fed in the marsh grass,
  19and behold, seven other cattle came up after them, poor and very ugly and thin, such as I never saw in all the land of Egypt for ugliness.
  20The thin and ugly cattle ate up the first seven fat cattle,
  21and when they had eaten them up it could not be known that they had eaten them, but they were still ugly as at the beginning. So I awoke.
  22I also saw in my dream, and behold, seven heads of grain came up on one stalk, full and good.
  23And behold, seven heads of grain, withered, thin, and blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them.
  24The thin heads of grain swallowed up the seven good heads of grain. I told it to the magicians, but there was no one who could explain it to me.”

25Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dream of Pharaoh is one; what God is about to do he has declared to Pharaoh.
  26The seven good cattle are seven years, and the seven good heads of grain are 7 years; the dream is one.
  27The 7 thin and ugly cattle that came up after them are 7 years, and also the 7 empty heads of grain blasted with the east wind; they will be 7 years of famine.

28That is the thing that I spoke to Pharaoh; what God is about to do he has shown to Pharaoh.
  29Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt.
  30There will arise after them seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt. The famine will consume the land,
  31and the plenty will not be known in the land by reason of that famine that follows, for it will be very grievous.
  32The dream was doubled to Pharaoh because the thing is established by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass.

33“Now therefore let Pharaoh look for a discreet and wise man, and set him over the land of Egypt.
  34Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint overseers over the land and take up the fifth part of the land of Egypt’s produce in the seven plenteous years.
  35Let them gather all the food of these good years that come and lay up grain under the hand of Pharaoh for food in the cities, and let them keep it.
  36The food will be for a store to the land against the seven years of famine that will be in the land of Egypt, that the land not perish through the famine.”

Joseph Exalted

37The thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants.
  38Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom is the spirit of God?”
  39Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Because God has shown you all of this, there is none so discreet and wise as you.
  40You will be over my house, and by your command will all my people be ruled; only in the throne will I be greater than you.”
  41Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Behold, I have set you over all the land of Egypt.”
  42Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it on Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in robes of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck,
  43and he made him to ride in the second chariot that he had. They cried out before him, “Bow the knee!” He set him over all the land of Egypt.
  44Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without you will no man lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.”
  45Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath–Paneah. And he gave him Asenath the daughter of Potiphera priest of On as a wife. Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

Joseph’s Administration

46Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh and went throughout all the land of Egypt.

47In the seven plenteous years the earth produced abundantly.
  48He gathered up all the food of the seven years that were in the land of Egypt and stored away the food in the cities. The food of the field that was around every city, he laid up in the same.
  49Joseph stored away grain as the sand of the sea, very much, until he stopped counting for it was without number.

50To Joseph were born two sons before the year of famine came, whom Asenath the daughter of Potiphera priest of On bore to him.
  51Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh, “For,” he said, “God has made me forget all my toil and all my father’s house.”
  52The name of the second he called Ephraim, “For God has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.”

53The seven years of plenty that were in the land of Egypt came to an end.
  54The seven years of famine began to come, just as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread.
  55When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried out to Pharaoh for bread, and Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph. What he says to you, do.”
  56The famine was over all the surface of the earth. Joseph opened all the store houses and sold to the Egyptians. The famine was severe in the land of Egypt.
  57All countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy grain, because the famine was severe in all the earth.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 42
Joseph’s Brothers in Egypt

1Now Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons, “Why do you look at one another?”
  2He said, “Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy for us from there, so that we may live and not die.”
  3Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt.
  4But Jacob didn’t send Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, with his brothers, for he said, “Lest perhaps harm happen to him.”

5The sons of Israel came to buy among those who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.
  6Joseph was the governor over the land. It was he who sold to all the people of the land. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down before him with their faces to the earth.
  7Joseph saw his brothers and he recognized them, but acted like a stranger to them and spoke roughly with them. He said to them, “Where did you come from?” They said, “From the land of Canaan, to buy food.”

8Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.
  9Joseph remembered the dreams that he dreamed about them, and said to them, “You are spies! You have come to see the nakedness of the land.”

10They said to him, “No, my lord, but your servants have come to buy food.
  11We are all one man’s sons. We are honest men. Your servants are not spies.”

12He said to them, “No, but you have come to see the nakedness of the land!”

13They said, “We, your servants, are 12 brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan, and behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is no more.”

14Joseph said to them, “It is like I told you, saying, You are spies!
  15By this you will be tested: by the life of Pharaoh, you will not go out from here unless your youngest brother comes here.
  16Send one of you, and let him get your brother, and you will be bound, that your words may be tested, whether there is truth in you. Or else, by the life of Pharaoh, surely you are spies.”
  17He put them all together into custody for three days.

18Joseph said to them the third day, “Do this and live, for I fear God:
  19if you are honest men, then let one of your brothers be bound in your prison, but you go, carry grain for the famine of your houses.
  20Bring your youngest brother to me. So will your words be verified, and you won’t die.” They did so.

21They said one to another, “We are certainly guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when he begged us, and we would not listen. Therefore this distress has come upon us.”

22Reuben answered them, saying, “Did I not tell you, saying, do not sin against the child, and you would not listen? Therefore also, behold, his blood is required.”

23They didn’t know that Joseph understood them, for there was an interpreter between them.
  24He turned himself away from them and wept. Then he returned to them and spoke to them, and took Simeon from among them and bound him before their eyes.
  25Then Joseph gave a command to fill their bags with grain, and to restore each man’s money into his sack, and to give them food for the way. So it was done to them.
  26They loaded their donkeys with their grain and departed from there.

The Brothers Return Home

27As one of them opened his sack to give his donkey food in the lodging place, he saw his money. Behold, it was in the mouth of his sack.
  28He said to his brothers, “My money is restored! Behold, it is in my sack!” Their hearts failed them, and they turned trembling one to another, saying, “What is this that God has done to us?”

29They came to Jacob their father to the land of Canaan, and told him all that had happened to them, saying,
  30“The man, the lord of the land, spoke roughly with us and took us for spies of the country.
  31We said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are no spies.
  32We are 12 brothers, sons of our father. One is no more, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan.’
  33The man, the lord of the land, said to us, ‘By this I will know that you are honest men: leave one of your brothers with me, and take grain for the famine of your houses, and go your way.
  34Bring your youngest brother to me. Then I will know that you are not spies but that you are honest men. So I will deliver your brother to you, and you will trade in the land.’”

35It came to pass as they emptied their sacks that, behold, each man’s bundle of money was in his sack. When they and their father saw their bundles of money, they were afraid.

36Jacob their father said to them, “You have bereaved me of my children! Joseph is no more, Simeon is no more, and you want to take Benjamin away. All these things are against me.”

37Reuben spoke to his father, saying, “Kill my two sons if I do not bring him to you. Entrust him to my care, and I will bring him to you again.”

38He said, “My son will not go down with you, for his brother is dead, and he only is left. If harm happens to him along the way in which you go, then you will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 43
Decision to Return to Egypt

1The famine was severe in the land.
  2It came to pass when they had eaten up the grain that they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again, buy us a little more food.”

3Judah spoke to him, saying, “The man solemnly warned us, saying, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’
  4If you‘ll send our brother with us, we’ll go down and buy you food.
  5But if you‘ll not send him, we’ll not go down, for the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face, unless your brother is with you.’”

6Israel said, “Why did you treat me so badly, telling the man that you had another brother?”

7They said, “The man asked directly concerning ourselves and concerning our relatives, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Have you another brother?’ We just answered his questions. Is there any way we could know that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down’?”

8Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me, and we will get up and go, and we will live and not die, both we and you and also our little ones.
  9I’ll be collateral for him. You may hold me responsible for him. If I do not bring him to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame all my life.
  10For if we had not delayed, surely we would have returned a second time by now.”

11Their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: take from the choice fruits of the land in your bags, and carry down a present for the man, a little balm, a little honey, spices and myrrh, nuts, and almonds.
  12And take double money in your hand and take back the money that was returned in the mouth of your sacks. Perhaps it was an oversight.
  13Take your brother also, get up, and return to the man.
  14May God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may release to you your other brother and Benjamin. If I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.”

The Return to Egypt

15The men took that present, and they took double money in their hand, and Benjamin, and got up, went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.

16When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house, “Bring the men into the house, and butcher an animal and prepare a meal, for the men will dine with me at noon.”
  17The man did as Joseph commanded and the man brought the men to Joseph’s house.

18The men were afraid because they were brought to Joseph’s house, and they said, “Because of the money, that was returned in our sacks at the first time, we‘re brought in, that he may seek occasion against us, attack us and seize us as slaves along with our donkeys.”
  19They came near to the steward of Joseph’s house and they spoke to him at the door of the house,
  20and said, “Oh, my lord, we indeed came down the first time to buy food.
  21When we came to the lodging place we opened our sacks, and behold, each man’s money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight. We have brought it back in our hand.
  22We have brought down other money in our hand to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks.”

23He said, “Peace be to you, do not be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has given you treasure in your sacks. I received your money.” He brought Simeon out to them.
  24The man brought the men into Joseph’s house and gave them water, and they washed their feet. He gave their donkeys fodder.
  25They prepared the present for Joseph’s coming at noon, for they heard that they should eat bread there.
  26When Joseph came home, they brought him the present that was in their hand into the house and bowed down to the ground before him.

27He asked them of their welfare and said, “Is your father well, the old man of whom you spoke? Is he yet alive?”

28They said, “Your servant our father is well; he is still alive,” and they kneeled and bowed down before him.

29He lifted up his eyes and saw Benjamin his brother, his mother’s son, and said, “Is this your youngest brother, of whom you spoke to me?” He said, “God be gracious to you, my son.”
  30Joseph hurried, for his heart yearned over his brother, and he sought a place to weep. He entered into his room and wept there.
  31He washed his face and came out. He controlled himself and said, “Serve the meal.”

32They served him by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians that ate with him by themselves, because the Egyptians do not eat bread with the Hebrews, for that is an abomination to the Egyptians.
  33They sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright and the youngest according to his youth, and the men marveled one with another.
  34He sent portions to them from before him, but Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as any of theirs. They drank and were merry with him.

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Go to Commentary on Gen 44
Joseph’s Final Test

1He commanded the steward of his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put each man’s money in his sack’s mouth.
  2Put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack’s mouth of the youngest, with his grain money.” He did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

3As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their donkeys.
  4When they had gone out of the city and were not yet far off, Joseph said to his steward, “Up, follow after the men. When you overtake them, ask them, ‘Why have you rewarded evil for good?
  5Isn’t this that from which my lord drinks, and by which he indeed divines? You have done evil in so doing.’”

6He overtook them, and he spoke these words to them.
  7They said to him, “Why does my lord speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing!
  8Behold, the money that we found in our sacks’ mouths we brought again to you out of the land of Canaan. How then should we steal silver or gold out of your lord’s house?
  9With whomever of your servants it is found, let him die, and we also will be my lord’s bondservants.”

10He said, “Now also let it be according to your words: he with whom it is found will be my bondservant, and you will be blameless.”

11Then they hurried and each man took his sack down to the ground, and each man opened his sack.
  12He searched, beginning with the eldest and ending at the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack.
  13Then they tore their clothes, and each man loaded his donkey and returned to the city.

14Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house, and he was still there. They fell on the ground before him.
  15Joseph said to them, “What deed is this that you have done? Do you not know that such a man as I can indeed discern by divination what happened?”

16Judah said, “What will we tell my lord? What will we speak? Or how will we clear ourselves? God has found out the iniquity of your servants; behold, we are my lord’s bondservants, both we and he also in whose hand the cup is found.”

17He said, “Far be it from me that I should do so. The man in whose hand the cup is found, he will be my bondservant. But as for you, go up in peace to your father.”

Judah’s Plea for Benjamin

18Then Judah came near to him and said, “Oh my lord, please let your servant speak a word in my lord’s ears, and do not let your anger burn against your servant, for you are even as Pharaoh.
  19My lord asked his servants, saying, ‘Have you a father, or a brother?’
  20We said to my lord, ‘We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one. And his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loves him.’
  21You said to your servants, ‘Bring him down to me, that I may set my eyes on him.’
  22We said to my lord, ‘The boy cannot leave his father, for if he should leave his father, his father would die.’
  23You said to your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you will see my face no more.’

24“It came to pass when we came up to your servant my father, we told him the words of my lord.
  25Our father said, ‘Go again, buy us a little food.’
  26We said, ‘We cannot go down. If our youngest brother is with us, then we will go down. For we may not see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’
  27Your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons,
  28and the one went out from me, and I said, Surely he is torn in pieces, and I haven’t seen him since.
  29If you take this one also from me, and harm happens to him, you will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.’

30“Now therefore when I come to your servant my father, and the boy is not with us, since his life is bound up in the boy’s life,
  31it will happen when he sees that the boy is no more, that he will die. Your servants will bring down the gray hairs of your servant our father with sorrow to Sheol.
  32For your servant became collateral for the boy to my father, saying, ‘If I do not bring him to you, then I will bear the blame to my father forever.’
  33Now therefore, please let your servant stay instead of the boy, a bondservant to my lord, and let the boy go up with his brothers.
  34For how will I go up to my father if the boy isn’t with me? Lest I see the evil that will come on my father.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 45
Joseph Reveals His Identity

1Then Joseph could not control himself before all those who stood before him, and he cried out, “Cause everyone to go out from me!” No one else stood with him while Joseph made himself known to his brothers.
  2He wept aloud. The Egyptians heard, and the house of Pharaoh heard.
  3Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph! Does my father still live?” His brothers could not answer him, for they were terrified at his presence.

4Joseph said to his brothers, “Come near to me, please.” They came near. He said, “I am Joseph, your brother, whom you sold into Egypt.
  5Now do not be grieved nor angry with yourselves that you sold me here, for God sent me before you to preserve life.
  6For these two years the famine has been in the land, and there are yet five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvest.
  7God sent me before you to preserve for you a remnant in the earth, and to save you alive by a great deliverance.
  8So now it was not you who sent me here, but God. And he has made me a father to Pharaoh, lord of all his house and ruler over all the land of Egypt.

9Hurry and go up to my father and tell him, ‘This is what your son Joseph says: God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; do not wait.
  10You will dwell in the land of Goshen, and you will be near to me, you, your children, your children’s children, your flocks, your herds, and all that you have.
  11There I will nourish you, for there are yet five years of famine, lest you come to poverty, you and your household, and all that you have.’
  12Behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaks to you.
  13You must tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that you have seen. You must hurry and bring my father down here.”

14He fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck.
  15He kissed all his brothers and wept on them. After that his brothers talked with him.

The Return for Jacob

16The report of it was heard in Pharaoh’s house, saying, “Joseph’s brothers have come.” It pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants.
  17Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Tell your brothers, ‘Do this: load your animals and go, travel to the land of Canaan.
  18Take your father and your households, and come to me, and I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and you will eat the fat of the land.’
  19Now you are commanded, ‘Do this: take wagons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones and for your wives, and bring your father, and come.
  20Also, do not let your eye look with regret about your belongings, for the good things of all of the land of Egypt—they are yours!”

21The sons of Israel did so: Joseph gave them wagons, according to the commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them provision for the way.
  22He gave each one of them changes of clothing, but to Benjamin he gave 300 pieces of silver and five changes of clothing.
  23He sent the following to his father: ten donkeys loaded with the good things of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and provision for his father by the way.
  24So he sent his brothers away, and they departed. He said to them, “See that you do not quarrel on the way.”

25They went up out of Egypt and came into the land of Canaan to Jacob their father.
  26They told him, saying, “Joseph is still alive, and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt.” His heart fainted, for he didn’t believe them.
  27They told him all the words of Joseph, that he had said to them. When he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived.

28Israel said, “It is enough; Joseph my son is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 46
Jacob Leaves for Egypt

1Israel traveled with all that he had and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac.
  2God spoke to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, “Jacob, Jacob!” He said, “Here I am.”

3He said, “I am God, the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down into Egypt, for there I will make of you a great nation.
  4I myself will go down with you into Egypt, and I myself will bring you up, yes, up again. Joseph will close your eyes.”

5Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, their little ones, and their wives in the wagons that Pharaoh had sent to carry him.
  6They took their livestock and their goods that they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob and all his seed with him,
  7his sons, and his sons’ sons with him, his daughters, and his sons’ daughters, and he brought all his seed with him into Egypt.

Jacob’s Family

8These are the names of the children of Israel who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn.
  9The sons of Reuben: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
  10The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman.
  11The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
  12The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah; but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
  13The sons of Issachar: Tola, Puvah, Iob, and Shimron.
  14The sons of Zebulun: Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.
  15These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah. All the souls of his sons and his daughters were 33.
  16The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.
  17The sons of Asher: Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and Serah their sister. The sons of Beriah: Heber and Malchiel.
  18These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter; and these she bore to Jacob–even 16 souls.

19The sons of Rachel, Jacob’s wife: Joseph and Benjamin.
  20To Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him.
  21The sons of Benjamin: Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard.
  22These are the sons of Rachel who were born to Jacob–all the souls were 14.
  23The son of Dan: Hushim.
  24The sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.
  25These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel his daughter, and these she bore to Jacob–all the souls were seven.
  26All the souls who came with Jacob into Egypt, who came out of his thigh,a not counting Jacob’s sons’ wives, all the souls were 66.
  27The sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt, were two souls. All the souls of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt were seventy.

Jacob Arrives in Egypt

28He sent Judah before him to Joseph to show the way before him to Goshen, and they came into the land of Goshen.
  29Joseph prepared his chariot and went up to meet Israel his father in Goshen. He presented himself to him and fell on his neck and wept on his neck a good while.

30Israel said to Joseph, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, that you are still alive.”

31Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s house, “I will go up and speak with Pharaoh and will tell him, ‘My brothers and my father’s house, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me.
  32These men are shepherds, for they have been keepers of livestock, and they have brought their flocks and their herds and all that they have.’
  33It will happen when Pharaoh summons you and will say, ‘What is your occupation?’
  34that you are to say, ‘Your servants have been keepers of livestock from our youth even until now, both we and our fathers,’ that you may dwell in the land of Goshen, for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians.”

i.e., Jacob’s direct descendants

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Go to Commentary on Gen 47
Pharaoh Welcomes Jacob

1Then Joseph went in and told Pharaoh and said, “My father and my brothers, with their flocks, their herds and all that they own, have come out of the land of Canaan. And behold, they are in the land of Goshen.”

2From among his brothers he took five men and presented them to Pharaoh.
  3Pharaoh said to his brothers, “What is your occupation?” They said to Pharaoh, “Your servants are shepherds, both we and our fathers.”
  4They said to Pharaoh, “We have come to live as foreigners in the land, for there is no pasture for your servants’ flocks, for the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. Now therefore, please let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen.”

5Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, saying, “Your father and your brothers have come to you.
  6The land of Egypt is before you. Make your father and your brothers dwell in the best of the land. Let them dwell in the land of Goshen. If you know any able men among them, then put them in charge of my livestock.”

7Joseph brought in Jacob his father and set him before Pharaoh, and Jacob blessed Pharaoh.
  8Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How many are the days of the years of your life?”

9Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The days of the years of my pilgrimage are 130 years. Few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage.”
  10Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from the presence of Pharaoh.

11Joseph placed his father and his brothers and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.
  12Joseph nourished his father, his brothers, and all of his father’s household with bread, according to their families.

The Land Becomes Pharaoh’s

13There was no bread in all the land, for the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine.
  14Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan for the grain that they bought. And Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house.
  15When the money was all spent in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said, “Give us bread, for why should we die in your presence? For our money fails.”

16Joseph said, “Give me your livestock, and I will give you food for your livestock, if your money is gone.”
  17They brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for the horses, and for the flocks, and for the herds, and for the donkeys, and he fed them with bread in exchange for all their livestock for that year.

18When that year was ended, they came to him the second year and said to him, “We will not hide from my lord how our money is all spent, and the herds of livestock are my lord‘s. There is nothing left in the sight of my lord but our bodies and our lands.
  19Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land for bread and we and our land will be servants to Pharaoh. Give us seed that we may live and not die, and that the land won’t be desolate.”

20So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh, for every man of the Egyptians sold his field, because the famine was severe on them, and the land became Pharaoh’s.
  21As for the people, he moved them to the cities from one end of the border of Egypt even to the other end of it.
  22Only he didn’t buy the land of the priests, for the priests had a portion from Pharaoh and ate their portion that Pharaoh gave them; that is why they didn’t sell their land.

23Then Joseph said to the people, “Behold, I have bought you and your land today for Pharaoh. Behold, here is seed for you, and you are to sow the land.
  24It will happen at the harvests that you are to give a fifth to Pharaoh, and four parts will be your own, for seed of the field, for your food, for them of your households, and for food for your little ones.”

25They said, “You have saved our lives! Let us find favor in the eyes of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s servants.”
  26Joseph made it a statute concerning the land of Egypt to this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth; only the land of the priests alone didn’t become Pharaoh‘s.

Israel Settles in Goshen

27Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen. And they got themselves possessions in it, and were fruitful and multiplied exceedingly.
  28Jacob lived in the land of Egypt 17 years. So the days of Jacob, the years of his life, were 147 years.

29The time drew near that Israel must die, and he called his son Joseph and said to him, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, please put your hand under my thigh and deal kindly and truly with me. Please do not bury me in Egypt,
  30but when I sleep with my fathers, you are to carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burying place.” He said, “I will do as you have said.”

31He said, “Swear to me,” and he swore to him. Israel bowed down at the head of the bed.

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Jacob Blesses Ephraim and Manasseh

1It came to pass after these things, that someone said to Joseph, “Behold, your father is sick.” He took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.
  2Someone told Jacob and said, “Behold, your son Joseph comes to you,” and Israel strengthened himself and sat on the bed.

3Jacob said to Joseph, “God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me,
  4and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful and multiply you, and I will make of you a company of peoples and will give this land to your seed after you for an everlasting possession.’
  5Now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you into Egypt, are mine; Ephraim and Manasseh, even as Reuben and Simeon, will be mine.
  6Your offspring whom you father after them will be yours. They will be called after the name of their brothers in their inheritance.
  7As for me, when I came from Paddan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when there was still some distance to come to Ephrath, and I buried her there in the way to Ephrath (which is Bethlehem).”

8Israel saw Joseph’s sons and said, “Who are these?”

9Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom God has given me here.” He said, “Please, bring them to me, and I will bless them.”
  10Now the eyes of Israel were dim for age, so that he could not see. He brought them near to him, and he kissed them and embraced them.
  11Israel said to Joseph, “I didn’t think I would see your face; and behold, God has let me see your seed also.”
  12Joseph brought them out from between his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the ground.

Ephraim’s Greater Blessing

13Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them near to him.
  14Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh’s head, guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn.
  15He blessed Joseph and said, “The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the God who has been my shepherd all my life long to this day,
  16the angel who has redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; let them grow into a multitude among the earth.”

17When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him. He held up his father’s hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head.
  18Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father; for this is the firstborn, put your right hand on his head.”

19His father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He also will become a people, and he also will be great. However, his younger brother will be greater than he, and his seed will become a multitude of nations.”
  20He blessed them that day, saying, “In you will Israel bless, saying, ‘God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh’” He set Ephraim before Manasseh.

21Israel said to Joseph, “Behold, I am dying, but God will be with you and bring you again to the land of your fathers.
  22Moreover, I have given to you one portion above your brothers that I took out of the hand of the Amorite with my sword and with my bow.”

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Go to Commentary on Gen 49
Jacob’s Last Words

1Jacob called to his sons and said, “Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you what will happen to you in the days to come.
  2“Assemble yourselves and hear, you sons of Jacob, listen to Israel your father.
  3“Reuben, you are my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, excelling in dignity and excelling in power.
  4Boiling over as water, you will not excel, because you went up to your father’s bed; then defiled it. He went up to my couch.
  5“Simeon and Levi are brothers; their swords are weapons of violence.
  6My soul, do not come into their council; my glory, do not be united to their assembly. For in their anger they killed men and hamstrung cattle as they pleased.
  7Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, and their wrath, for it was cruel. I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel.
  8“Judah, your brothers will praise you; your hand will be on the neck of your enemies! Your father’s sons will bow down before you.
  9Judah is a lion’s cub; from the prey, my son, you have gone up. He stooped down; he crouched as a lion, as a lioness; who will rouse him up?
  10The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs; and to him will the obedience of the peoples be.
  11Binding his foal to the vine, his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, he will wash his garments in wine, his robes in the blood of grapes.
  12His eyes—darker than wine, his teeth—whiter than milk.
  13“Zebulun will dwell at the haven of the sea. He will be for a haven of ships. His border will be on Sidon.
  14“Issachar is a strong donkey, lying down between the campfires.
  15He saw a resting place, that it was good, the land, that it was pleasant. He bows his shoulder to the burden, and becomes a servant doing forced labor.
  16“Dan will judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel.
  17Dan will be a serpent in the way, an adder in the path, that bites the horse’s heels so that his rider falls backward.
  18I have waited for your salvation, Yahweh.
  19“A troop will press on Gad, but he will press on their heel.
  20“Asher’s food will be rich. He will yield royal delights.
  21“Naphtali is a doe set free who bears beautiful fawns.
  22“Joseph is a fruitful vine, a fruitful vine by a spring: his branches run over the wall.
  23The archers have severely grieved him, shot at him, and persecute him,
  24but his bow remained strong; the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob (from there is the shepherd, the stone of Israel),
  25even by the God of your father who will help you, by the Almighty who will bless you with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep that lies below, blessings of the breasts and of the womb.
  26The blessings of your father have prevailed above the blessings of your ancestors, above the boundaries of the ancient hills. They will be on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who is separated from his brothers.
  27“Benjamin is a ravenous wolf. In the morning he will devour the prey. At evening he will divide the spoil.”

28All these are the 12 tribes of Israel. And this is what their father spoke to them and blessed them. He blessed everyone according to his blessing.

Jacob’s Burial Instructions

29He instructed them and said to them, “I am to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,
  30in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, that is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, that Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite as a burial place.
  31There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife. There they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife, and there I buried Leah–
  32the field and the cave that is in it that was purchased from the children of Heth.”
  33When Jacob made an end of charging his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed and breathed his last and was gathered to his people.

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Jacob’s Burial

1Joseph fell on his father’s face, wept on him and kissed him.
  2Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. And the physicians embalmed Israel.
  3Forty days were fulfilled for him, for that is how many the days it takes to embalm. The Egyptians wept for him for seventy days.

4When the days of weeping for him were past, Joseph spoke to the house of Pharaoh, saying, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, please speak in the ears of Pharaoh, saying,
  5My father made me swear, saying, ‘Behold, I am dying: bury me in my grave that I have dug for myself in the land of Canaan.’ Now therefore, please let me go up and bury my father, and I will come again.”

6Pharaoh said, “Go up, and bury your father, just like he made you swear.”

7Joseph went up to bury his father, and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, all the elders of the land of Egypt,
  8all the house of Joseph, his brothers, and his father’s house. Only their little ones, their flocks, and their herds they left in the land of Goshen.
  9There went up with him both chariots and horsemen. It was a very great company.
  10They came to the threshing floor of Atad that is beyond the Jordan, and there they mourned with a great and intense mourning. He mourned for his father seven days.
  11When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, “This is a grievous mourning by the Egyptians.” Therefore its name was called Abel Mizraim; that is beyond the Jordan.

12His sons did to him just as he commanded them,
  13for his sons carried him into the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah that Abraham bought with the field for a possession of a burial site from Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre.
  14Joseph returned into Egypt–he and his brothers and all that went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.

Joseph’s Kindness

15When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “It may be that Joseph will hate us and will fully pay us back for all of the evil that we did to him.”

16They sent a message to Joseph, saying, “Your father commanded before he died, saying,
  17‘You will tell Joseph, Now please forgive the disobedience of your brothers and their sin, because they did evil to you.’ Now, please forgive the disobedience of the servants of the God of your father.” Joseph wept when they spoke to him.
  18His brothers also went and fell down before his face and they said, “Behold, we are your servants.”

19Joseph said to them, “Do not be afraid, for am I in the place of God?
  20As for you, you planned evil against me, but God planned for good, to bring to pass as it is this day, to save many people alive.
  21Now therefore do not be afraid; I will nourish you and your little ones.” He comforted them and spoke kindly to them.

Joseph’s Death

22Joseph lived in Egypt, he and his father’s house. Joseph lived 110 years.
  23Joseph saw Ephraim’s children to the third generation. The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were born on Joseph’s knees.

24Joseph said to his brothers, “I am dying, but God will surely visit you and bring you up out of this land to the land that he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.”
  25Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you are to carry up my bones from here.”

26So Joseph died, being 110 years old. And they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt.

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