”All the people saw the thunderings, the lightnings, the sound.” The people also heard the sound of God’s voice as He loudly spoke the Ten Commandments from the top of Mount Sinai. It is commonly taught that the first time Israel got the Ten Commandments was when Moses came down Mount Sinai with them, but that is not correct. The first time Israel got the Ten Commandments was when God personally spoke them in a loud voice from Mount Sinai to the people of Israel at the foot of the mountain. The Bible says in a number of places that the children of Israel heard the Ten Commandments spoken by God (cp. Exod. 20:22; Deut. 4:10-13, 15, 36; 5:4-6, 22-27; 18:16; Heb. 12:18-21). Then, after that, on his fifth time up Mount Sinai, Moses was given the Ten Commandments on stone tablets—but Moses broke those first tablets (Exod. 24:15-18; 31:18; 32:19). Then, on his seventh and last time up Mount Sinai, Moses got a second set of stone tablets (Exod. 34:1-4; cp. Deut. 9:10-11, 15-17; 10:1-5).
God spoke the Ten Commandments in a loud voice to the Israelites between Moses’ third and fourth time up Mount Sinai, and at that time Moses was down at the base of Mount Sinai with the people. The voice of God frightened the Israelites, so they asked that God not speak directly to them anymore, but that He would speak to Moses and Moses then could tell them what He said (Exod. 20:19-21). So it was that the rest of the Law of Moses was given by God to Moses who then told the people.
[For more on God giving the Ten Commandments in a loud voice, see commentary on Exodus 19:9. For more on God coming in the form of a human so he could directly relate to people, see commentary on Acts 7:55.]
“shofar.” The ram’s horn trumpet, not the metal trumpet.