and they made their lives bitter with hard service in mortar and in brick and in all kinds of service in the field. In all of their service they ruthlessly made them serve as slaves. Bible see other translations

“serve as slaves.” The Hebrew is abad (#05647 עָבַד) and it means to serve, to work, to serve another. In this context it means to serve as a slave (cp. ESV).

Commentary for: Exodus 1:14