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Israel Oppressed in Egypt

1Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came into Egypt (every man and his household that came with Jacob):
 

2Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,
  3Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,
  4Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher.
 

5All the souls who came out of Jacob’s thigh were 70 souls; and Joseph was in Egypt already.
 

6Joseph died, as did all his brothers and all that generation.
  7The children of Israel were fruitful and increased abundantly; and multiplied and grew exceedingly strong, and the land was filled with them.
 

8Now there arose a new king over Egypt who did not know Joseph.
  9And he said to his people, “Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more numerous and stronger than we are.
  10Come, let’s deal wisely with them, lest they multiply and it happens that when any war breaks out that they join with our enemies and fight against us and escape from the land.”
  11Therefore they set taskmasters over them to afflict them with forced labor. They built for Pharaoh storage cities, Pithom and Raamses.
  12But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out. The Egyptians were grieved because of the children of Israel.
  13The Egyptians ruthlessly made the children of Israel serve,
  14and they made their lives bitter with hard service in mortar and in brick and in all kinds of service in the field. In all of their service they ruthlessly made them serve as slaves.
 

15The king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah and the name of the other Puah,
  16and he said, “When you perform the duty of a midwife to the Hebrew women and see them on the birth stool, if it is a son, then you must kill him, but if it is a daughter, then she may live.”
  17But the midwives feared God and did not do what the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the baby boys alive.
  18The king of Egypt called for the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this, and let the male children live?”
 

19The midwives said to Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women, for they are vigorous and give birth before the midwife comes to them.”
 

20So God dealt well with the midwives. And the people multiplied and grew very mighty.
  21And because the midwives feared God, he gave them families.
  22Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “You must cast every son who is born into the river, but you are to let every daughter live.”
 


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Moses’ Birth and Adoption

1A man of the house of Levi went and took a daughter of Levi as his wife.
  2The woman conceived and bore a son. When she saw that he was special, she hid him three months.
  3When she could not hide him any longer, she took a papyrus basket for him and coated it with tar and with pitch. She put the child in it and laid it in the reeds by the river’s bank,
  4and his sister stood far off to see what would be done to him.
 

5Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe at the river and her servant girls walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her servant girl to get it.
  6She opened it and saw the child, and behold, the baby cried. She had compassion on him and said, “This is one of the Hebrews’ children.”
 

7Then his sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Should I go and call a nurse for you from the Hebrew women, so that she can nurse the child for you?”
 

8And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Go.” So the young girl went and called the child’s mother.
  9And Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Take this child away and nurse him for me, and I will give you your wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed it.
  10And the child grew, and she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses and said, “Because I drew him out of the water.”
 

Moses in Midian

11And in those days, when Moses had grown up, he went out to his brothers and looked upon their burdens. And he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his brothers.
  12And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no one around, he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.
  13And he went out the second day, and behold, two men of the Hebrews were fighting with each other. He said to him who did the wrong, “Why are you striking your neighbor?”
 

14But he said, “Who made you a ruler and a judge over us? Do you plan to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” Moses was afraid and said, “Surely this thing is known.”
  15Now when Pharaoh heard of this matter, he sought to kill Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and lived in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well.
 

16Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters, and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock.
  17Then the shepherds came and drove them away, but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock.
  18When they came to Reuel their father, he said, “How is it that you have returned so early today?”
 

19They said, “An Egyptian delivered us out of the hand of the shepherds and he even drew water for us and watered the flock.”
 

20And he said to his daughters, “Where is he? Why is it that you have left the man? Call him, so that he can eat bread.”
 

21Moses was willing to live with the man, and he gave Zipporah his daughter in marriage to Moses.
  22She bore a son, and he named him Gershom, for he said, “I have lived as a sojourner in a foreign land.”
 

23And in the course of those many days the king of Egypt died, and the children of Israel groaned because of their slavery and they cried out. And their cry came up to God because of their slavery.
  24And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.
  25And God saw the children of Israel and God knew….
 


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Moses and the Burning Bush

1Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, the priest of Midian, and he led the flock to the far side of the wilderness and came to the mountain of God; to Horeb.
  2And the angel of Yahweh appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. And he looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire but the bush was not consumed.
  3And Moses said, “I will turn aside now and see this great sight—why the bush is not burning up.”
 

4And when Yahweh saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the midst of the bush and said, “Moses! Moses!” And he said, “Here I am.”
 

5Then he said, “Do not come near. Take your sandals off of your feet, for the place you are standing on is holy ground.”
  6Then he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.
 

7Then Yahweh said, “I have seen, yes, seen the affliction of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their cry because of their taskmasters. For I know their suffering.
  8I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians and to bring them up out of that land to a good and spacious land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite and the Jebusite.
  9And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to me. Moreover I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians are oppressing them.
  10So now come. I am sending you to Pharaoh so that you can bring my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt.”
 

11But Moses said to God, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh and that I should bring the children of Israel out of Egypt?”
 

12And he said, “Certainly I will be with you. And this will be the sign for you that it is I who have sent you: when you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will all serve God on this mountain.”
 

13Then Moses said to God, “Behold, if I go to the children of Israel and tell them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ What should I tell them?”
 

14And God said to Moses, “I am who I am.” And he said, “You are to tell the children of Israel this: ‘I am has sent me to you.’”
  15Furthermore, God said to Moses, “Tell the children of Israel this: ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is my name forever, and this is how I am to be remembered throughout all generations.
 

16“Go and gather the elders of Israel together and tell them, ‘Yahweh, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying, “I have surely visited you and seen what has been done to you in Egypt,
  17and I have said I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Amorite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite, to a land flowing with milk and honey.”’
  18They will listen to your voice. And you are to go, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt and you are to tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Now please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness so that we may sacrifice to Yahweh our God.’
 

19“But I know that the king of Egypt will not give you permission to go, no, not unless compelled by a mighty hand.
  20So I will reach out my hand and strike Egypt with all my wonders that I will do in its midst; and after that he will let you go.
  21And I will give this people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians, and it will come to pass that when you go, you will not go empty-handed,
  22but every woman is to ask her neighbor and any woman who is staying in her house for jewels of silver, jewels of gold, and clothing. And you will put them on your sons and on your daughters, and you will plunder the Egyptians.”
 


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Miraculous Signs for Moses

1Then Moses answered, “But behold, they will not believe me or listen to my voice, for they will say, ‘Yahweh has not appeared to you.’”
 

2Then Yahweh said to him, “What is that in your hand?” And he said, “A staff.”
 

3And he said, “Throw it on the ground.” So he threw it on the ground, and it became a snake. And Moses ran from it.
  4But Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand and take it by the tail.” So he stretched out his hand and took hold of it, and it became a staff in his hand.
  5This is so that they may believe that Yahweh the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”
 

6Yahweh said furthermore to him, “Now put your hand inside your cloak.” He put his hand inside his cloak, and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow.
  7Then he said, “Put your hand inside your cloak again.” So he put his hand inside his cloak again, and when he took it out of his cloak, behold, it was restored again as the rest of his flesh.
  8“It will come to pass that if they will not believe you or listen to the voice of the first sign they will believe the voice of the second sign.
  9But it will come to pass that if they will not believe even these two signs, nor listen to your voice, that you are to take of the water of the river and pour it on the dry land. The water that you take out of the river will become blood on the dry land.”
 

10But Moses said to Yahweh, “Pardon, O my Lord. I am not eloquent, neither before now nor since you have spoken to your servant, for I am slow of speech and of a slow tongue.”
 

11Then Yahweh said to him, “Who made man’s mouth? Or who makes one mute, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? Is it not I, Yahweh?
  12Now therefore go, and I will be with your mouth and teach you what you are to say.”
 

13But he said, “Pardon, O my Lord. Please send someone else.”
 

14Then the anger of Yahweh was kindled against Moses and he said, “What about Aaron, your brother, the Levite? I know that he can speak well. Also, behold, he is coming out to meet you, and when he sees you, he will be glad in his heart.
  15You are to speak to him and put the words in his mouth. I will be with your mouth and with his mouth and will teach you both what you are to do.
  16He will speak to the people for you, and it will come to pass that he will be a mouth for you, and you will be God to him.
  17And you are to take this staff in your hand, with which you are to do the signs.”
 

Moses’ Return to Egypt

18So Moses went and returned to Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, “Please let me go and return to my brothers who are in Egypt and see whether they are still alive.” And Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.”
 

19Now Yahweh had said to Moses in Midian, “Go, return to Egypt, for all the men who were seeking your life are dead.”
  20So Moses took his wife and his sons and set them on a donkey, and he returned to the land of Egypt. And Moses took the staff of God in his hand.
 

21And Yahweh said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put in your hand. But I will harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.
  22And you are to tell Pharaoh, ‘This is what Yahweh says: Israel is my son, my firstborn,
  23and I have said to you, “Let my son go, that he may serve me.” But you have refused to let him go. Behold, I will kill your son, your firstborn.’”
 

24It came to pass on the road, at a lodging place, that Yahweh met Moses and wanted to kill him.
  25Then Zipporah took a flint and cut off the foreskin of her son and threw it at Moses’ feet and she said, “Surely you are a husband of blood to me.”
  26So he let him alone. At that time she said, “a husband of blood,” because of the circumcision.
 

Reunion of Moses and Aaron

27And Yahweh said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.” So he went and met him on the mountain of God and kissed him.
  28And Moses told Aaron all the words of Yahweh that he had sent him to say, and all the signs that he had commanded him to do.
  29Then Moses went, and Aaron, and gathered together all the elders of the children of Israel.
  30And Aaron spoke all the words that Yahweh had spoken to Moses, and he did the signs in the sight of the people.
  31And the people believed; and when they heard that Yahweh had visited the children of Israel and that he had seen their affliction, then they kneeled and bowed down in worship.
 


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Moses Confronts Pharaoh

1And afterward Moses and Aaron went in and said to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel, says: ‘Let my people go, so that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.’”
 

2But Pharaoh said, “Who is Yahweh, that I should listen to his voice to let Israel go? I do not know Yahweh, and besides, I will not let Israel go.”
 

3Then they said, “The God of the Hebrews has met with us. Please let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to Yahweh our God, lest he fall on us with pestilence or with the sword.”
 

4But the king of Egypt said to them, “Why do you, Moses and Aaron, draw the people away from their work? Get back to your burdens!”
  5And Pharaoh said, “Behold, the people of the land are now many, and you make them cease from their burdens.”
 

Further Oppression of Israel

6And the same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their officers, saying,
  7“You are to no longer give the people straw to make brick, as before; let them go and gather straw for themselves.
  8But the number of the bricks that they made before, you are to require from them; you are not to diminish any of it, for they are idle. Therefore they cry out, saying, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to our God.’
  9Let heavier work be laid on the men and let them work at that, and not pay any attention to lying words.”
 

10The taskmasters of the people went out, and their officers, and they spoke to the people, saying, “This is what Pharaoh says: ‘I will not give you straw.
  11Go yourselves, get straw where you can find it, for no part of your work will be diminished.’”
  12So the people were scattered abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw.
  13The taskmasters were urgent, saying, “Fulfill your work quota daily, as when there was straw!”
  14The officers of the children of Israel, whom Pharaoh’s taskmasters had set over them, were beaten, and demanded, “Why haven’t you fulfilled your quota both yesterday and today in making brick, as before?”
 

15Then the officers of the children of Israel came and cried out to Pharaoh, saying, “Why do you deal this way with your servants?
  16No straw is given to your servants, and they tell us, ‘Make brick!’ And behold, your servants are beaten; but the fault is in your own people.”
 

17But he said, “You are idle! You are idle; therefore you say, ‘Let us go and sacrifice to Yahweh.’
  18Go therefore now and work. For no straw will be given to you, yet you must deliver the same number of bricks!”
 

19The officers of the children of Israel saw that they were in trouble when it was said, “You are not to diminish anything from your daily quota of bricks!”
  20They met Moses and Aaron, who stood in the way, as they came out from Pharaoh;
 

21And they said to them, “May Yahweh look at you and judge, because you have made us a stench to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to kill us.”
 

22Moses returned to Yahweh, and said, “Lord, why have you brought trouble on this people? Why is it that you have sent me?
  23For since I came to Pharaoh to speak in your name, he has brought trouble on this people, nor have you delivered your people at all.”
 


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1Yahweh said to Moses, “Now you are going to see what I will do to Pharaoh; for by a strong hand he will let them go, and by a strong hand he will drive them out of his land.”
 

God Promises Freedom

2God spoke to Moses and said to him, “I am Yahweh.
  3And I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as God Almighty, but by my name Yahweh I was not known to them.
  4I have also established my covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their travels in which they lived as aliens.
  5Moreover, I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel whom the Egyptians are keeping in slavery, and I have remembered my covenant.
 

6Therefore tell the children of Israel, ‘I am Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you out of your slavery to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.
  7And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God, and you will know that I am Yahweh your God, who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
  8I will bring you into the land that I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. And I will give it to you for a heritage. I am Yahweh.’”
  9Moses spoke so to the children of Israel, but they did not listen to Moses because of their broken spirit and because of the harsh slavery.
 

10Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  11“Go in, speak to Pharaoh king of Egypt that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.”
 

12Moses spoke before Yahweh, saying, “Behold, the children of Israel haven’t listened to me. How then will Pharaoh listen to me, who is of uncircumcised lips?”
  13Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron and gave them a command to the children of Israel and to Pharaoh king of Egypt: to bring the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.
 

Genealogy of Moses and Aaron

14These are the heads of their fathers’ houses: the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi; these are the families of Reuben.
  15The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman; these are the families of Simeon.
  16These are the names of the sons of Levi according to their descendants: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were 137 years.
  17The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, according to their families.
  18The sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel, and the years of the life of Kohath were 133 years.
  19The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the families of the Levites according to their descendants.
  20Amram took Jochebed his father’s sister as a wife, and she bore him Aaron and Moses, and the years of the life of Amram were 137 years.
  21The sons of Izhar: Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.
  22The sons of Uzziel: Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri.
  23Aaron took Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab, the sister of Nahshon, as his wife, and she bore him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
  24The sons of Korah: Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph; these are the families of the Korahites.
  25Eleazar, Aaron’s son, took one of the daughters of Putiel as his wife, and she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the fathers’ houses of the Levites according to their families.
 

26These are that Aaron and Moses to whom Yahweh said, “Bring out the children of Israel from the land of Egypt according to their armies.”
  27These are those who spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt to bring out the children of Israel from Egypt. These are that Moses and Aaron.
 

Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh

28It came to pass on the day when Yahweh spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt
  29that Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying, “I am Yahweh; speak to Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I speak to you.”
 

30Moses said before Yahweh, “Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips. And how will Pharaoh listen to me?”
 


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1Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I have made you God to Pharaoh, and Aaron your brother will be your prophet.
  2You must speak all that I command you, and Aaron your brother must speak to Pharaoh that he let the children of Israel go out of his land.
  3But I will make Pharaoh’s heart stubborn and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.
  4But Pharaoh will not listen to you. And I will lay my hand on Egypt and bring out my armies, my people the children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great judgments.
  5The Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh, when I stretch out my hand on Egypt and bring out the children of Israel from among them.”
 

6Moses and Aaron did so; as Yahweh commanded them, so they did.
  7Moses was 80 years old, and Aaron 83 years old, when they spoke to Pharaoh.
 

8Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying,
  9“When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, ‘Perform a miracle!’ then you will tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, so that it becomes a serpent.’”
  10Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and they did so as Yahweh had commanded. And Aaron cast down his staff before Pharaoh and before his servants and it became a serpent.
  11Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers. They also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same thing by their secret arts.
  12For they each cast down their staff, and they became serpents. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs.
  13Yet Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, just as Yahweh had spoken.
 

The First Plague: Water Turned to Blood

14Yahweh said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is unyielding; he refuses to let the people go.
  15Go to Pharaoh in the morning, behold, he goes out to the water. And you are to stand by the river’s bank to meet him, and the staff that was turned to a serpent you are to take in your hand.
  16You will tell him, ‘Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness, and behold, until now you haven’t listened.”
  17This is what Yahweh says: “By this you will know that I am Yahweh! Behold, with the staff that is in my hand I will strike on the waters that are in the river, and they will be turned to blood.
  18The fish that are in the river will die, and the river will become foul, and the Egyptians will loathe to drink water from the river.”’”
 

19Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, over their streams, and over their pools, and over all their ponds of water, so that they will become blood, and there will be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’”
 

20Moses and Aaron did so as Yahweh commanded. And he lifted up the staff and struck the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants, and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
  21The fish that were in the river died, and the river became foul, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river. And the blood was throughout all the land of Egypt.
 

22The magicians of Egypt did the same thing with their enchantments. Yet Pharaoh’s heart was hardened and he did not listen to them, just as Yahweh had spoken.
  23Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he didn’t even take this to heart.
  24All the Egyptians dug around the river for water to drink, for they could not drink of the water of the river.
  25Seven days were fulfilled after Yahweh had struck the river.
 


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The Second Plague: Frogs

1Yahweh spoke to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
  2If you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your borders with frogs.
  3And the river will swarm with frogs that will go up and come into your house and into your bedroom and on your bed and into the house of your servants and on your people, and into your ovens and into your kneading troughs.
  4And the frogs will come up both on you and on your people and on all your servants.”’”
 

5And Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the streams and over the pools, and cause frogs to come up onto the land of Egypt.’”
  6Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.
  7The magicians did the same thing with their enchantments and brought up frogs on the land of Egypt.
 

8Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron and said, “Entreat Yahweh that he take away the frogs from me and from my people, and I will let the people go that they may sacrifice to Yahweh.”
 

9Moses said to Pharaoh, “I give you the honor of setting the time that I should pray for you and for your servants and for your people, that the frogs be destroyed from you and your houses and remain in the river only.”
 

10He said, “Tomorrow.” He said, “Be it according to your word, that you may know that there is none like Yahweh our God.
  11The frogs will depart from you and from your houses and from your servants and from your people. They will remain in the river only.”
  12Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried out to Yahweh concerning the frogs that he had brought on Pharaoh.
  13Yahweh did according to the word of Moses. And the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields.
  14They gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank.
  15But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, his heart became unyielding and he did not listen to them, as Yahweh had spoken.
 

The Third Plague: Lice

16Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the earth, so that it will become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.’”
  17They did so. And Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and there were lice on man and on animal. All the dust of the earth became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
  18The magicians tried with their enchantments to produce lice, but they could not. There were lice on man and on animal.
 

19Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God.” But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened and he did not listen to them, just as Yahweh had spoken.
 

The Fourth Plague: Swarms of Flies

20Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh, behold, he comes out to the water, and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh says, “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
  21Else, if you will not let my people go, behold, I will send swarms of flies on you and on your servants and on your people, and into your houses. And the houses of the Egyptians will be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground on which they are.
  22I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, where my people dwell, that no swarms of flies will be there, to the end you may know that I am Yahweh in the midst of the earth.
  23I will put a division between my people and your people. By tomorrow will this sign be.”’”
 

24Yahweh did so. And there came grievous swarms of flies into the house of Pharaoh and into his servants’ houses. And in all the land of Egypt the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies.
  25Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God in the land!”
 

26But Moses said, “It would not be right to do so, for the offerings we sacrifice to Yahweh our God are an abomination to the Egyptians. If we sacrifice offerings abominable to the Egyptians before their eyes, will they not stone us?
  27We will go three days’ journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to Yahweh our God as he will command us.”
 

28Pharaoh said, “I will let you go, that you may sacrifice to Yahweh your God in the wilderness; only you are not to go very far away. Pray for me.”
 

29Moses said, “Behold, I go out from you and I will pray to Yahweh that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow. Only do not let Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to Yahweh.”
  30Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to Yahweh.
  31Yahweh did according to the word of Moses, and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one.
  32But Pharaoh made his heart unyielding this time also, and he did not let the people go.
 


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The Fifth Plague: Death of Livestock

1Then Yahweh said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
  2For if you refuse to let them go, and hold them still,
  3behold, the hand of Yahweh is on your livestock that are in the field, on the horses, on the donkeys, on the camels, on the herds, and on the flocks with a very grievous pestilence.
  4Yahweh will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, and nothing will die of all that belongs to the children of Israel.”’”
  5Yahweh appointed a set time, saying, “Tomorrow Yahweh will do this thing in the land.”
  6Yahweh did that thing on the next day. And all the livestock of Egypt died, but of the livestock of the children of Israel not one died.
  7Pharaoh sent, and behold, there was not so much as one of the livestock of the Israelites dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was unyielding, and he did not let the people go.
 

The Sixth Plague: Boils

8Yahweh said to Moses and to Aaron, “Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
  9It will become small dust over all the land of Egypt, and will be a boil breaking out with boils on man and on animal throughout all the land of Egypt.”
  10They took ashes of the furnace and stood before Pharaoh. And Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven, and it became a boil breaking out with boils on man and on animal.
  11The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils were on the magicians and on all the Egyptians.
  12And Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh and he did not listen to them, just as Yahweh had spoken to Moses.
 

The Seventh Plague: Hail

13Yahweh said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh and tell him, ‘This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: “Let my people go, that they may serve me.
  14For this time I will send all my plagues against your heart, against your officials, and against your people, that you may know that there is none like me in all the earth.
  15For now I would have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth.
  16But indeed for this cause I have allowed you to remain to show you my power, and so that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
  17You are still exalting yourself against my people in that you will not let them go.
  18Behold, tomorrow about this time I will cause it to rain a very grievous hail, such as has not been in Egypt since the day it was founded even until now.
  19Now therefore command that all of your livestock and all that you have in the field be brought into shelter. Every man and animal that is found in the field and isn’t brought home, the hail will come down on them and they will die.”’”
  20Those who feared the word of Yahweh among the servants of Pharaoh made their servants and their livestock flee into the houses.
  21Whoever didn’t respect the word of Yahweh left his servants and his livestock in the field.
 

22Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be hail in all the land of Egypt, on man and on animal and on every herb of the field, throughout the land of Egypt.”
  23And Moses stretched out his staff toward the heavens, and Yahweh sent thunder, hail, and lightning flashed down to the earth. Yahweh rained hail on the land of Egypt.
  24So there was very severe hail and lightning mixed with the hail, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
  25The hail struck throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and animal. And the hail struck every herb of the field and broke every tree of the field.
  26Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail.
 

27Pharaoh sent and called for Moses and Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time; Yahweh is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.
  28Pray to Yahweh, for there has been enough of mighty thunderings and hail. I will let you go, and you will stay no longer.”
 

29Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will spread abroad my hands to Yahweh. The thunders will cease, neither will there be any more hail, that you may know that the earth is Yahweh’s.
  30But as for you and your servants, I know that you do not yet fear Yahweh God.”
 

31The flax and the barley were struck, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bloom.
  32But the wheat and the spelt were not struck, for they had not grown up.
 

33Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh and spread abroad his hands to Yahweh, and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured on the earth.
  34When Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned again and made his heart unyielding, both he and his servants.
  35And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the children of Israel go, just as Yahweh had spoken through Moses.
 


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The Eighth Plague: Locusts

1Yahweh said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh, for I have made his heart and the hearts of his servants unyielding, that I may show these my signs in their midst,
  2and that you may tell in the hearing of your son and of your son’s son what things I have done to Egypt and my signs that I have done among them, that you may know that I am Yahweh.”
 

3Moses and Aaron went in to Pharaoh and said to him, “This is what Yahweh, the God of the Hebrews, says: ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, that they may serve me.
  4Or else if you refuse to let my people go, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country,
  5and they will cover the surface of the earth, so that one won’t be able to see the earth. They will eat the residue of what has escaped that remains to you from the hail, and will eat every tree that grows for you out of the field.
  6Your houses will be filled and the houses of all your servants and the houses of all the Egyptians, as neither your fathers nor your fathers’ fathers have seen, since the day that they were on the earth to this day.’” He turned and went out from Pharaoh.
 

7Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a snare to us? Let the men go, that they may serve Yahweh their God. Do you not yet know that Egypt is destroyed?”
 

8Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh. And he said to them, “Go, serve Yahweh your God. But who are those who will go?”
 

9Moses said, “We will go with our young and with our old. With our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go, for we must hold a feast to Yahweh.”
 

10He said to them, “Yahweh be with you, if I will let you go with your little ones! See, evil is clearly before your faces.
  11Not so! Go now, you who are men, and serve Yahweh; for that is what you desire!” They were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.
 

12Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, that they may come up on the land of Egypt and eat every herb of the land, even all that the hail has left.”
  13Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and Yahweh brought an east wind on the land all that day and all the night. And when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.
  14The locusts went up over all the land of Egypt and rested in all the territory of Egypt. They were very grievous. There had never been so many locusts before, and there will never be so many after them.
  15For they covered the surface of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened, and they ate every herb of the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. There remained nothing green, neither tree or herb of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
 

16Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste and he said, “I have sinned against Yahweh your God, and against you.
  17Now therefore, please forgive my sin again, and pray to Yahweh your God that he may also take away from me this death.”
  18He went out from Pharaoh and prayed to Yahweh.
  19Yahweh turned an exceeding strong west wind that took up the locusts and drove them into the Red Sea. There remained not one locust in all the territory of Egypt.
  20But Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go.
 

The Ninth Plague: Darkness

21Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness that may be felt.”
  22Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was a gloom, a darkness, in all the land of Egypt three days.
  23They did not see one another, nor did anyone rise from his place for three days, but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
 

24Pharaoh called to Moses and said, “Go, serve Yahweh; only let your flocks and your herds stay behind; let your little ones also go with you.”
 

25Moses said, “You must also give into our hand sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice to Yahweh our God.
  26Our livestock also must go with us; not a hoof will be left behind, for of it we must take to serve Yahweh our God, and we do not know with what we must serve Yahweh until we come there.”
 

27But Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.
  28Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Be careful to see my face no more, for in the day you see my face you will die!”
 

29Moses said, “You have spoken well. I will see your face again no more.”
 


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The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

1Yahweh said to Moses, “I will bring still one more plague on Pharaoh and on Egypt. Afterwards he will let you go. When he lets you go, he will surely thrust you out altogether.
  2Speak now in the ears of the people, and let them ask, every man of his neighbor and every woman of her neighbor, jewels of silver and jewels of gold.”
  3Yahweh gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians. Moreover, the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the eyes of Pharaoh’s servants and in the eyes of the people.
 

4Moses said, “This is what Yahweh says: About midnight I will go out into the middle of Egypt,
  5and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill, and all the firstborn of livestock.
  6There will be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there has not been, nor will be any more.
  7But against any of the children of Israel no dog will even sharpen its tongue against man or animal so that you will know that Yahweh makes a distinction between the Egyptians and Israel.
  8All these your servants will come down to me and bow down to me, saying, ‘Get out, with all the people who follow you,’ and after that I will go out.” He went out from Pharaoh in hot anger.
 

9Yahweh said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”
  10Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, but Yahweh hardened Pharaoh’s heart and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land.
 


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Instructions for the Passover

1Yahweh spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying,
  2“This month will be the beginning of months for you. It will be the first month of the year for you.
  3Speak to all the congregation of Israel and say on the tenth day of this month every man among them must take a lamb according to their fathers’ houses, a lamb for a household.
  4And if the household is too little for a lamb, then he and his neighbor next to his house are to take one according to the number of the souls; according to what everyone can eat you are to make your count for the lamb.
  5Your lamb must be without blemish, a male a year old. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats,
  6and you are to keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month, and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel will kill it at evening.
  7“They must take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel on the houses in which they will eat it.
  8They are to eat the flesh in that night, roasted with fire; and unleavened bread. They are to eat it with bitter herbs.
  9Do not eat it raw or boiled at all with water, but roasted with fire, with its head, its legs and its inner parts.
  10You must let nothing of it remain until the morning; but what remains of it until the morning you must burn with fire.
  11This is how you must eat it: with your belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. And you are to eat it in haste. It is Yahweh’s Passover.
 

12For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and animal; against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am Yahweh.
  13The blood will be to you for a token on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood I will pass over you and there will no plague be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.
 

14“This day will be for a memorial to you, and you are to keep it as a feast to Yahweh throughout your generations; you are to keep it as a feast by an ordinance forever.
 

Feast of Unleavened Bread

15Seven days you must eat unleavened bread. Even the first day you must put away yeast out of your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread, from the first day until the seventh day, that soul must be cut off from Israel.
  16On the first day there will be to you a holy assembly, and in the seventh day a holy assembly. No kind of work is to be done in them. Except what every man must eat, that only may be done by you.
 

17You are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread, for in this same day I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you must observe this day throughout your generations as an ordinance forever.
  18In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you are to eat unleavened bread until the twenty-first day of the month at evening.
  19There must be no yeast found in your houses for seven days. For whoever eats what is leavened, that soul must be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a foreigner or one who is born in the land.
  20You will eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations you must eat unleavened bread.”
 

Pass0ver observed

21Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Draw out and take lambs according to your families, and kill the Passover.
  22You are to take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you is to go out of the door of his house until the morning.
  23For Yahweh will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, Yahweh will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to come in to your houses to strike you.
 

24You are to observe this thing for an ordinance to you and to your sons forever.
  25It will happen, when you have come to the land that Yahweh will give you according as he has promised, that you are to keep this service.
  26It will happen when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’
  27that you are to say, ‘It is the sacrifice of Yahweh’s Passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians and spared our houses.’” The people kneeled and bowed down in worship.
  28The children of Israel went and did so; as Yahweh had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.
 

The Exodus

29And it came to pass at midnight that Yahweh struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of livestock.
  30Pharaoh rose up in the night, he and all his servants and all the Egyptians. And there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
  31He called for Moses and Aaron by night and said, “Rise up, get out from among my people, both you and the children of Israel; and go, serve Yahweh, as you have said!
  32Take both your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and be gone, and bless me also!”
 

33The Egyptians were urgent with the people to send them out of the land in haste. For they said, “We are all dead men.”
  34The people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneading troughs being bound up in their clothes on their shoulders.
 

35The children of Israel did according to the word of Moses, and they asked of the Egyptians jewels of silver and jewels of gold and clothing.
  36Yahweh gave the people favor in the eyes of the Egyptians so that they let them have what they asked. Thus they took away the wealth of the Egyptians.
 

37The children of Israel traveled from Rameses to Sukkoth, about 600,000 on foot who were men, besides children.
  38A mixed multitude went up also with them, with flocks, herds, and even very much livestock.
  39They baked unleavened cakes of the dough that they brought out of Egypt, for it wasn’t leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not wait, neither had they prepared for themselves any food.
 

40Now the time of the sojourn of the children of Israel (who lived in Egypt) was 430 years.
  41It came to pass at the end of 430 years, even the same day it came to pass, that all the armies of Yahweh went out from the land of Egypt.
  42It is a night to be much observed to Yahweh, for bringing them out from the land of Egypt; this is that night of Yahweh, to be much observed of all the children of Israel throughout their generations.
 

Passover Instructions

43Yahweh said to Moses and Aaron, “This is the ordinance of the Passover: no foreigner is to eat of it,
  44but every man’s slave who is bought for money, when you have circumcised him, then he may eat of it.
  45A sojourner and a hired servant must not eat of it.
  46It is to be eaten in one house. You are not to take any of the meat out of the house, and you are not to break any of its bones.
  47All the congregation of Israel must keep it.
  48When a foreigner resides with you and wants to keep the Passover to Yahweh, all his males must be circumcised. And then he may come near and keep it, and he will be like one who is born in the land. But no uncircumcised person is to eat of it.
  49There is to be one law that is to apply to him who is born at home and to the foreigner who lives among you.”
 

50All the children of Israel did as Yahweh commanded Moses and Aaron. That is what they did.
  51It came to pass the same day that Yahweh brought the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.
 


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1Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  2“Sanctify to me all of the firstborn. Whatever opens the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of animal, it is mine.”
 

3Moses said to the people, “Remember this day when you came out from Egypt, out of the house of slavery, for by strength of hand Yahweh brought you out from this place. No leavened bread may be eaten.
  4This day you go out in the month Abib.
  5And when Yahweh will bring you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite that he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you must keep this service in this month.
  6Seven days you must eat unleavened bread, and in the seventh day there is to be a feast to Yahweh.
  7Unleavened bread is to be eaten throughout the seven days, and no leavened bread is to be seen with you, nor may yeast be seen with you within all your territory.
  8You will tell your son in that day, saying, ‘It is because of what Yahweh did for me when I came out of Egypt.’
  9It will be for a sign to you on your hand and for a memorial between your eyes, that the law of Yahweh may be in your mouth. For with a strong hand Yahweh has brought you out of Egypt.
  10You must therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year.
 

11“Now when Yahweh will bring you into the land of the Canaanite, as he swore to you and to your fathers, and will give it you,
  12you are to set apart to Yahweh all that opens the womb. And every firstborn that you have that comes from an animal, the males will be Yahweh’s.
  13Every firstborn of a donkey you must redeem with a lamb, and if you will not redeem it then you must break its neck. And you must redeem all the firstborn of man among your sons.
 

14It will be when your son asks you in time to come, saying, ‘What is this?’ that you will tell him, ‘By strength of hand Yahweh brought us out from Egypt, from the house of slavery.
  15And it came to pass when Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, that Yahweh killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man and the firstborn of animal. That is why I sacrifice to Yahweh every male that opens the womb, but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’
  16It will be for a sign on your hand and for symbols between your eyes, for by strength of hand Yahweh brought us out of Egypt.”
 

The Route of the Exodus

17It came to pass when Pharaoh had let the people go that God did not lead them by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near. For God said, “Lest perhaps the people change their minds when they see war and they return to Egypt.”
  18But God led the people around by the way of the wilderness by the Red Sea. And the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt.
 

19Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for he had made the children of Israel swear, saying, “God will surely visit you, and you must carry up my bones away from here with you.”
 

20They took their journey from Sukkoth and encamped in Etham, on the edge of the wilderness.
  21Yahweh went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them on their way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might go by day and by night.
  22The pillar of cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night did not depart from before the people.
 


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1Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  2“Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon; you must encamp opposite it, by the sea.
  3Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, ‘They are entangled in the land; the wilderness has shut them in.’
  4And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will follow after them, and I will get honor over Pharaoh and over all his armies, and the Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh.” They did so.
 

The Egyptian Pursuit

5It was told the king of Egypt that the people had fled, and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed toward the people, and they said, “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?”
  6He prepared his chariot and took his army with him,
  7and he took 600 chosen chariots and all the chariots of Egypt and captains over all of them.
  8And Yahweh hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt and he pursued after the children of Israel, for the children of Israel went out with a high hand.
  9The Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, his horsemen and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
 

10When Pharaoh drew near, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they were very afraid. The children of Israel cried out to Yahweh.
  11They said to Moses, “Because there were no graves in Egypt, have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you treated us this way to bring us out of Egypt?
  12Isn’t this the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying, ‘Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians?’ For it were better for us to serve the Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness.”
 

13Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid, stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh that he will work for you today. For the Egyptians whom you have seen today, you will never see them again.
  14Yahweh will fight for you, and you must be still.”
 

Escape through the Red Sea

15Yahweh said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Speak to the children of Israel that they go forward.
  16Lift up your staff, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, and the children of Israel will go into the middle of the sea on dry ground.
  17I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians and they will go in after them, and I will get myself honor over Pharaoh and over all his armies, over his chariots, and over his horsemen.
  18The Egyptians will know that I am Yahweh when I have gotten myself honor over Pharaoh, over his chariots, and over his horsemen.”
 

19The angel of God who went before the camp of Israel moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them.
  20It came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel. And there was the cloud and the darkness, yet it gave light by night. And the one didn’t come near the other all the night.
 

21Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and Yahweh caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided.
  22The children of Israel went into the middle of the sea on the dry ground, and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.
 

23The Egyptians pursued and went in after them into the middle of the sea, all of Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
  24And during the morning watch Yahweh looked out on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and of cloud and threw the Egyptian army into a panic.
  25He took off their chariot wheels and they drove them heavily, so that the Egyptians said, “Let’s flee from the face of Israel, for Yahweh fights for them against the Egyptians!”
 

26Yahweh said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the waters may come again on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen.”
  27Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared. And the Egyptians fled against it. Yahweh overthrew the Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
  28The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen; even all Pharaoh’s army that went in after them into the sea, there remained not so much as one of them.
 

29But the children of Israel walked on dry ground in the midst of the sea, and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.
  30Thus Yahweh saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea.
  31Israel saw the great work that Yahweh did to the Egyptians, and the people feared Yahweh, and they believed in Yahweh and in his servant Moses.
 


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Israel’s Song

1Then Moses and the children of Israel sang this song to Yahweh and said, “I will sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.
  2Yah is my strength and song, he has become my salvation; this is my God, and I will praise him, my father’s God, and I will exalt him.
  3Yahweh is a man of war; Yahweh is his name.
  4“He has cast Pharaoh’s chariots and his army into the sea, his chosen captains are sunk in the Red Sea.
  5The deeps cover them; they went down into the depths like a stone.
  6Your right hand, Yahweh, is glorious in power, your right hand, Yahweh, dashes the enemy in pieces.
  7In the greatness of your excellency you overthrow those who rise up against you; you send forth your wrath; it consumes them as stubble.
  8With the blast of your nostrils the waters were piled up; the floods stood upright as a heap; the deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea.
  9The enemy said, ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil, my desire will be satisfied on them. I will draw my sword; my hand will destroy them.’
  10You blew with your wind; the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the mighty waters.
  11“Who is like you, Yahweh, among the gods? Who is like you, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?
  12You stretched out your right hand; the earth swallowed them.
  13“You in your loving kindness have led the people that you have redeemed; you have guided them in your strength to your holy habitation.
  14The peoples have heard; they tremble; pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia.
  15Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed; trembling takes hold of the mighty men of Moab; all the inhabitants of Canaan are melted away.
  16Terror and dread falls on them; by the greatness of your arm, they are as still as a stone, until your people cross over, Yahweh, until the people whom you have purchased cross over.
  17You will bring them in and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance, the place, Yahweh, that you have made for yourself to dwell in, the sanctuary, Lord, that your hands have established
  18Yahweh will reign forever and ever.”
 

19For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and Yahweh brought back the waters of the sea on them, but the children of Israel walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea.
  20Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a tambourine in her hand, and all the women went out after her with tambourines and with dances.
  21Miriam answered them, “Sing to Yahweh, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.”
 

Water Provided

22Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur. And they went three days in the wilderness and found no water.
  23When they came to Marah, they could not drink from the waters of Marah because they were bitter. Therefore its name was called Marah.
  24The people murmured against Moses, saying, “What will we drink?”
  25Then he cried out to Yahweh; Yahweh showed him a stick, and he threw it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. He made a statute and an ordinance for them there, and he tested them there,
  26and he said, “If you will diligently listen to the voice of Yahweh your God, and will do what is right in his eyes, and will pay attention to his commandments and keep all his statutes, I will put none of the diseases on you that I have put on the Egyptians, for I am Yahweh who heals you.”
 

27They came to Elim, where there were 12 springs of water and 70 palm trees, and they encamped there by the waters.
 


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Manna and Quail Provided

1They took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came to the wilderness of Sin that is between Elim and Sinai on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.
  2The whole congregation of the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness,
  3and the children of Israel said to them, “We wish that we had died by the hand of Yahweh in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the meat pots, when we ate our fill of bread, for you have brought us out into this wilderness to kill this whole assembly with hunger.”
 

4Then Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you, and the people are to go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in my law or not.
  5And on the sixth day, they are to prepare what they bring in, and it will be twice as much as they gather daily.”
 

6Moses and Aaron said to all the children of Israel, “At evening, then you will know that Yahweh has brought you out from the land of Egypt,
  7and in the morning, then you will see the glory of Yahweh, because he hears your murmurings against Yahweh. Who are we, that you murmur against us?”
  8Moses said, “Now Yahweh will give you meat to eat in the evening and in the morning bread to satisfy you, because Yahweh hears your murmurings that you murmur against him, and who are we? Your murmurings are not against us but against Yahweh.”
 

9Moses said to Aaron, “Tell all the congregation of the children of Israel, ‘Come near before Yahweh, for he has heard your murmurings.’”
  10It came to pass, as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of Yahweh appeared in the cloud.
 

11And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  12“I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel. Speak to them, saying, ‘At evening you will eat meat, and in the morning you will be filled with bread. And you will know that I am Yahweh your God.’”
 

13It came to pass at evening that quail came up and covered the camp, and in the morning the dew lay around the camp.
  14When the dew that lay had gone, behold, on the surface of the wilderness was a small round thing, small as the frost on the ground.
  15When the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, “What is it?” —because they did not know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread that Yahweh has given you to eat.
  16This is the thing that Yahweh has commanded: ‘Gather of it, everyone, according to his eating. An omer a head, according to the number of your persons you may take it, every man for those who are in his tent.’”
 

17The children of Israel did so, and gathered some more, some less.
  18When they measured it with an omer, he who gathered much had nothing over, and he who gathered little had no lack. They gathered as much as each person needed to eat.
  19Moses said to them, “Let no one leave any of it until the morning.”
  20Notwithstanding they did not listen to Moses. But some of them left some of it until the morning, and it bred worms and stank. And Moses was angry with them.
 

21They gathered it morning by morning, each as much as he needed to eat, and when the sun grew hot, it melted.
  22It came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one. And all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
  23He said to them, “This is what Yahweh has spoken: ‘Tomorrow is a day of rest, a holy Sabbath to Yahweh; bake what you want to bake and boil what you want to boil, and all that remains over set aside for yourselves to be kept until the morning.’”
 

24And they set it aside until the morning, as Moses had ordered, and it did not stink, nor were there any worms in it.
  25Moses said, “Eat that today, for today is a Sabbath to Yahweh; today you will not find it in the field.
  26Six days you are to gather it, but on the seventh day—a Sabbath—on it there will be none.”
 

27Yet it came to pass on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, but they found none.
  28Yahweh said to Moses, “How long do you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws?
  29Behold, because Yahweh has given you the Sabbath, therefore he gives you on the sixth day the bread of two days. Everyone stay in his place; let no one go out of his place on the seventh day.”
  30So the people rested on the seventh day.
 

31The house of Israel called its name Manna, and it was like coriander seed, white, and its taste was like wafers with honey.
  32Moses said, “This is the thing that Yahweh has commanded: ‘Let a full omer of it be kept throughout your generations, that they may see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.’”
 

33Moses said to Aaron, “Take a pot, and put a full omer of manna in it, and lay it up before Yahweh to be kept throughout your generations.”
  34As Yahweh commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept.
 

35The children of Israel ate the manna 40 years, until they came to an inhabited land. They ate the manna until they came to the borders of the land of Canaan.
  36Now an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.
 


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Water from the Rock

1All the congregation of the children of Israel traveled from the wilderness of Sin by their journeys, according to Yahweh’s commandment, and encamped in Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink.
  2Therefore the people quarreled with Moses and said, “Give us water to drink.” Moses said to them, “Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test Yahweh?”
 

3The people were thirsty for water there, and the people murmured against Moses and said, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us, our children and our livestock with thirst?”
 

4Moses cried out to Yahweh, saying, “What should I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me.”
 

5Yahweh said to Moses, “Walk on before the people, and take the elders of Israel with you, and take the staff in your hand with which you struck the Nile, and go.
  6Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock in Horeb, you will strike the rock, and water will come out of it, that the people may drink.” Moses did so, in the sight of the elders of Israel.
  7He called the name of the place Massah and Meribah, because the children of Israel quarreled, and because they tested Yahweh, saying, “Is Yahweh among us, or not?”
 

The Amalekites Attack

8Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in Rephidim.
  9Moses said to Joshua, “Choose men for us, and go out, fight with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand.”
 

10So Joshua did as Moses had told him, and fought with Amalek, and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.
  11It came to pass when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed, and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed.
  12But Moses’ hands were heavy, and they took a stone and put it under him, and he sat on it. Aaron and Hur held up his hands, the one on the one side and the other on the other side. His hands were steady until sunset.
  13Joshua defeated Amalek and his people with the mouth of the sword.
 

14Yahweh said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in a book and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven.”
 

15Moses built an altar and called its name Yahweh our Banner.
  16He said, “Yah has sworn. Yahweh will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.”
 


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Jethro’s Visit

1Now Jethro the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that God had done for Moses and for Israel his people, how that Yahweh had brought Israel out of Egypt.
 

2Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, received Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her away,
  3and her two sons. The name of one son was Gershom, for Moses said, “I have lived as a foreigner in a foreign land”.
  4The name of the other was Eliezer, for he said, “My father’s God was my help, and delivered me from Pharaoh’s sword.”
 

5Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with his sons and his wife to Moses into the wilderness where he was encamped at the Mountain of God.
  6He said to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, have come to you with your wife and her two sons with her.”
 

7Moses went out to meet his father-in-law and bowed down to him and kissed him. They asked each other of their welfare and they came into the tent.
  8Moses told his father-in-law all that Yahweh had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, all the hardships that had come on them on the way, and how Yahweh delivered them.
 

9Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness that Yahweh had done to Israel, in that he had delivered them out of the hand of the Egyptians.
  10Jethro said, “Blessed be Yahweh, who has delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians and out of the hand of Pharaoh, who has delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians.
  11Now I know that Yahweh is greater than all gods, because of the thing in which they dealt arrogantly against them.”
 

12Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took a burnt offering and sacrifices for God; Aaron came with all of the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.
 

13It came to pass on the next day that Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood around Moses from the morning to the evening.
  14When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, he said, “What is this thing that you do for the people? Why do you sit alone, and all the people stand around you from morning to evening?”
 

15Moses said to his father-in-law, “Because the people come to me to inquire of God;
  16when they have a matter, they come to me and I judge between a man and his neighbor, and I make them know the statutes of God and his laws.”
 

17Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “The thing that you do is not good.
  18You will surely wear away, both you and this people that is with you, for the thing is too heavy for you. You are not able to perform it yourself alone.
  19Listen now to my voice; I will give you counsel, and God be with you. You represent the people before God and bring the causes to God.
  20You will teach them the statutes and the laws, and will show them the way in which they must walk and the work that they must do.
  21Moreover, you should select out of all the people able men who fear God, men of truth, hating unjust gain, and place such over them to be rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
  22Let them judge the people at all times. And every great matter they will bring to you, but every small matter they will judge themselves. So will it be easier for you, and they will share the load with you.
  23If you will do this thing, and God commands you so, then you will be able to endure, and all of these people also will go to their place in peace.”
 

24So Moses listened to the voice of his father-in-law and did all that he had said.
  25Moses chose able men out of all Israel and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
  26They judged the people at all times. They brought the hard causes to Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.
 

27Moses let his father-in-law depart, and he went his way into his own land.
 


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Israel at Sinai

1In the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on that same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai.
  2When they had departed from Rephidim and had come to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness. And there Israel encamped before the mountain.
 

3Moses went up Mount Sinai to God. And Yahweh called to him out of the mountain, saying, “This is what you are to tell the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:
  4You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to me.
  5Now therefore, if you will listen, yes, listen to my voice and keep my covenant, then you will be my own possession from among all peoples—for all the earth is mine—
  6and you will be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you are to speak to the children of Israel.”
 

7And Moses came and called for the elders of the people and set before them all these words that Yahweh commanded him.
  8All the people answered together and said, “All that Yahweh has spoken we will do.” Moses reported the words of the people to Yahweh.
 

9Yahweh said to Moses, “Behold, I will come to you in a thick cloud so that the people can hear when I speak with you, and can also believe you forever.” Moses told the words of the people to Yahweh.
  10Yahweh said to Moses, “Go to the people and sanctify them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments
  11and be ready for the third day; for on the third day Yahweh will come down in the sight of all the people on Mount Sinai.
  12You must set boundaries for the people all around the mountain, saying, ‘Beware that you do not go up onto the mountain or touch its border. Whoever touches the mountain is to be put to death, yes, death.
  13No hand is to touch him, but he is to be stoned, yes, stoned, or shot, yes, shot. Whether animal or human, he is not to live. When the shofar sounds a long blast, they may come up to the mountain.”
 

14So Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes.
  15He said to the people, “Be ready by the third day; do not have sexual relations with a woman.”
 

16It came to pass on the third day, when it was daybreak, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud on the mountain and the sound of a shofar that was exceedingly loud, and all the people in the camp trembled.
  17Moses led the people out of the camp to meet God, and they stood at the lower part of the mountain.
  18Now Mount Sinai smoked all over, because Yahweh descended on it in fire. And its smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly.
  19When the sound of the shofar grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice.
 

20Yahweh came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain. Yahweh called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.
  21Yahweh said to Moses, “Go down, warn the people, lest they break through to Yahweh to gaze and many of them perish.
  22Let the priests also who come near to Yahweh sanctify themselves, lest Yahweh break forth on them.”
 

23Moses said to Yahweh, “The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai, for you warned us, saying, ‘Set boundaries around the mountain and sanctify it.’”
  24Yahweh said to him, “Go down, and you are to bring Aaron up with you, but do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to Yahweh, lest he break forth on them.”
  25So Moses went down to the people and told them.
 


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The Ten Commandments

1Then God spoke all these words, saying,
 

2“I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.
 

3“You must not have any other gods besides me.
 

4“You must not make for yourself a carved image, or any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
  5you must not bow down to thema and you must not serve them because I, Yahweh your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, even on the third and on the fourth generation of those who hate me,
  6but showing covenant faithfulness to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
 

7“You must not misuse the name of Yahweh your God, for Yahweh will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.
 

8“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
  9You are to labor six days, and do all your work,
  10but the seventh day is a Sabbath to Yahweh your God. On it you must not do any work—you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your livestock, nor your stranger who is inside your gates.
  11For in six days Yahweh made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
 

12“You are to honor your father and your mother, so that your days may be long in the land that Yahweh your God gives you.
 

13“You must not murder.
 

14“You must not commit adultery.
 

15“You must not steal.
 

16“You must not give false testimony against your neighbor.
 

17“You must not covet your neighbor’s house; you must not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor’s.”
 

The People’s Reaction

18All the people saw the thunderings, the lightnings, the sound of the shofar, and the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled, and stayed at a distance.
  19They said to Moses, “Speak with us yourself, and we will listen; but do not let God speak with us, lest we die.”
 

20Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid, for God has come to test you so that the fear of him will be with you and so that you will not sin.”
  21The people stayed at a distance, and Moses drew near to the thick darkness where God was.
 

Moses Receives Additional Laws

22Yahweh said to Moses, “This is what you are to tell the children of Israel: ‘You yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.
  23You must most certainly not make alongside of me gods of silver, or gods of gold for yourselves.
 

24You must make an altar of earth for me and must sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your cattle. In every place where I record my name I will come to you and I will bless you.
  25If you make me an altar of stone, you must not build it of cut stones, for if you lift up your tool on it you have polluted it.
  26You must not go up by steps onto my altar, so that your nakedness is not exposed on it.’
 


a[5]
Or, “worship them”

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1“Now these are the ordinances that you must set before them.
 

Laws about Slaves

2“If you buy a Hebrew servant, he is to serve six years, and in the seventh he is to go out free, without paying anything.
  3If he comes in by himself, he is to go out by himself; if he is married, then his wife is to go out with him.
  4If his master gives him a wife and she bears him sons or daughters, the wife and her children will be her master‘s, and he must go out by himself.
 

5“But if the servant plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,’
  6then his master is to bring him to the judges, and will bring him to the door or to the doorpost. And his master must bore his ear through with an awl, and he will serve him forever.
 

7“If a man sells his daughter to be a female servant, she is not to go out as the male servants do.
  8If she does not please her master, who has married her to himself, then he must let her be redeemed. He will have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her.
  9If he marries her to his son, he must deal with her as a daughter.
  10If he takes another wife to himself, he must not hold back her food, her clothing, or her marital rights.
  11If he does not do these three things for her, she may go free, without paying any money.
 

Laws about Personal Injury

12“Anyone who strikes a person so that he dies must be put to death, yes, death.
  13But not if it is unintentional, but God allows it to happen, then I will appoint you a place where he may flee.
  14If a man schemes and comes presumptuously on his neighbor to kill him, you must take him from my altar, that he may die.
 

15“Anyone who attacks his father or his mother must be put to death, yes, death.
 

16“Anyone who kidnaps someone and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, he must be put to death, yes, death.
 

17“Anyone who curses his father or his mother must be put to death, yes, death.
 

18“If men quarrel and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist but he does not die but is confined to bed,
  19if he rises again and walks around with his staff, then he who struck him will be cleared; only he must pay for the loss of his time, and must provide for his healing until he is thoroughly healed.
 

20“If a man strikes his servant or his maid with a staff and he dies under his hand, he must be punished, yes, punished.
  21Notwithstanding, if he gets up after a day or two, he should not be punished, for he is his property.
 

22“If men fight and hurt a pregnant woman, such that her fruit departs, and yet no harm follows, he must be surely fined, as much as the woman’s husband demands, and the judges allow.
  23But if any harm follows, then you must take life for life,
  24eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
  25burning for burning, wound for wound, and bruise for bruise.
 

26“If a man strikes his servant’s eye, or his maid’s eye, and destroys it, he must let him go free for his eye’s sake.
  27If he strikes out his male servant’s tooth, or his female servant’s tooth, he must let him go free for his tooth’s sake.
 

28“If a bull gores a man or a woman to death, the bull must surely be stoned, and its flesh may not be eaten, but the owner of the bull will not be held responsible.
  29But if the bull had a habit of goring in the past, and it has been testified to its owner and he has not kept it in, but it has killed a man or a woman, the bull must be stoned, and its owner must also be put to death.
  30If a ransom is laid on him, then he can give for the redemption of his life whatever is laid on him.
  31Whether it has gored a son or has gored a daughter, according to this judgment it is to be done to him.
  32If the bull gores a male servant or a female servant, 30 shekelsa of silver must be given to their master, and the ox must be stoned.
 

33“If a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and a bull or a donkey falls into it,
  34the owner of the pit must make it good. He must give money to its owner, and the dead animal will be his.
 

35“If one man’s bull injures another’s, so that it dies, then they must sell the live bull and divide its price, and they must also divide the dead animal.
  36Or if it is known that the bull was in the habit of goring in the past, and its owner has not kept it in, he must surely pay bull for bull, and the dead animal will be his own.”
 


a[32]
Roughly 12 ounces (340 grams)

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Laws about Theft

1“If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and kills it or sells it, he must pay five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.
  2If the thief is found in the act of breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there will be no guilt of bloodshed for him.
  3But if the sun has risen on him, there will be the guilt of bloodshed for him. A thief is to make restitution, yes, restitution. If he has nothing, then he is to be sold for his theft.
  4If the stolen property is found, yes, found in his hand alive, whether it is ox, donkey or sheep, he must pay double.
 

Laws about Crop Protection

5“If a man causes a field or vineyard to be eaten, or lets his animal loose and it grazes in another man’s field, he is to make restitution from the best of his own field and from the best of his own vineyard.
 

6“If fire breaks out and catches in thorns so that the shocks of grain or the standing grain or the field are consumed, the one who started the fire is to make restitution, yes, restitution.
 

Laws about Personal Property

7“If a man delivers to his neighbor money or goods to keep safe, and it is stolen out of the man’s house, if the thief is found, he must pay double.
  8If the thief is not found, then the master of the house must appear before the judges to find out if he has put his hand to his neighbor’s goods.
  9For every matter of transgression, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any kind of lost thing, about which one says, ‘This is mine,’ the cause of both parties is to come before the judges. He whom the judges condemn must pay double to his neighbor.
 

10“If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep or any animal for safekeeping, and it dies or is injured or driven away, no one seeing it,
  11the oath of Yahweh must be between them both that he has not laid his hands on his neighbor’s goods. And its owner must accept it, and he will not make restitution.
  12But if it was stolen, yes, stolen from him, he must make restitution to its owner.
  13If it is torn in pieces, let him bring it for evidence. He will not make good what was torn.
 

14“If a man borrows anything of his neighbor‘s, and it is injured or dies, its owner not being with it, he must surely make restitution.
  15If its owner is with it, he will not make it good; if it is a hired thing, it came for its hire.
 

Laws about Seduction

16“If a man entices a virgin who is not pledged to be married and lies with her, he must surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife.
  17If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he must pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
 

Capital Offenses

18“You must not allow a sorceress to live.
 

19“Whoever has sex with an animal must surely be put to death.
 

20“He who sacrifices to any god, except to Yahweh only, is to be utterly destroyed.
 

Laws Protecting the Vulnerable

21“You must not wrong a resident foreigner, nor are you to oppress him, for you were resident foreigners in the land of Egypt.
 

22You must not take advantage of any widow or fatherless child.
  23If you take advantage of them at all and they cry out at all to me, I will hear, yes, hear their cry,
  24and my wrath will grow hot, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives will be widows and your children fatherless.
 

25“If you lend money to any of my people with you who is poor, you must not be to him as a creditor, nor are you to charge him interest.
 

26If you take your neighbor’s garment as collateral, you must restore it to him before the sun goes down,
  27for that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin; what would he sleep in? It will happen when he cries to me, that I will hear, for I am gracious.
 

Respect for God

28“You must not revile God, nor curse a ruler of your people.
 

29“You must not delay to offer from your harvest and from the outflow of your presses. You are to give the firstborn of your sons to me.
  30You must do likewise with your cattle and with your sheep: seven days it will be with its mother; then on the eighth day you are to give it to me.
 

31“You are to be holy men to me. Therefore you must not eat any flesh that is torn by animals in the field; you are to cast it to the dogs.
 


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Laws about Honesty and Justice

1“You must not spread a false report. Do not join your hand with the wicked to help them by being a malicious witness.
 

2“You must not follow a crowd to do evil. Do not testify in a lawsuit and go along with the crowd in perverting justice.
  3Do not favor a poor man in his lawsuit.
 

4“If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey going astray, you must surely bring it back to him again.
 

5“If you see the donkey of one who hates you fallen down under his burden, do not leave him; you must surely help him with it.
 

6“You must not deny justice to your poor people in their lawsuits.
  7Keep far away from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent and righteous, for I will not justify the wicked.
  8You must not take a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who have sight and perverts the words of the righteous.
 

9“You must not oppress a foreigner. For you know the heart of a foreigner, since you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.
 

Sabbaths and the Three Feasts

10“For six years you will sow your land and will gather in its increase,
  11but the seventh year you are to let it rest and lie fallow so that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave, the animals of the field may eat. You are to deal with your vineyard and with your olive grove in the same way.
 

12“Six days you are to do your work, and on the seventh day you are to rest, so that your ox and your donkey may have rest, and the son of your slave girl, and the alien, may be refreshed.
 

13“Be careful to do all things that I have said to you, and do not invoke the name of other gods, nor let them be heard out of your mouth.
 

14“You are to observe a feast to me three times a year.
  15You are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib (for in it you came out from Egypt). And no one is to appear before me empty-handed.
  16And the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your labor, of what you sow in the field. And the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you gather in your labors out of the field.
  17Three times in the year all your males are to appear before the Lord Yahweh.
 

18“You must not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread, nor is the fat of my feast to remain all night until the morning.
 

19“The best of the firstfruits of your ground you are to bring into the house of Yahweh your God. “You must not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.
 

Promises and Warnings about Keeping the Law

20“Behold, I am going to send an angel before you to guard you on the road and to bring you into the place that I have prepared.
  21Pay attention to him and listen to his voice; do not be rebellious against him, for he will not pardon your disobedience, for my name is in him.
  22But if you carefully listen to his voice and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries.
  23For my angel will go before you and bring you to the land of the Amorite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Canaanite, the Hivite and the Jebusite, and I will cut them off.
  24You must not bow down to their godsa nor serve them, nor follow their practices, but you must utterly overthrow them and demolish their sacred standing-stones.
  25You are to serve Yahweh your God, and he will bless your bread and your water, and I will take sickness away from your midst.
  26No one will miscarry or be barren in your land; I will fulfill the number of your days.
 

27“I will send my terror before you and will throw into a panic all the people that you come to, and I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you.
  28I will send the hornet before you that will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite and the Hittite from before you.
  29I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate and the animals of the field multiply against you.
  30Little by little I will drive them out from before you until you have increased and inherit the land.
  31I will set your boundaries from the Red Sea to the sea of the Philistines, and from the wilderness to the Euphrates River, for I will give the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you will drive them out before you.
  32You must make no covenant with them or with their gods.
  33They must not live in your land lest they make you sin against me, for if you serve their gods it will surely be a snare to you.”
 


a[24]
Or, “worship their gods”

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The Covenant Ceremony

1He said to Moses, “Come up to Yahweh, you and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and 70 of the elders of Israel, and bow down in worship from a distance.
  2Moses alone, however, is to come near to Yahweh, but they are not to come near, nor are the people to go up Mount Sinai with him.”
 

3Then Moses went down and told the people all the words of Yahweh and all the ordinances. And all the people answered with one voice and said, “All the words that Yahweh has spoken will we do.”
  4Moses wrote all the words of Yahweh, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve standing-stones, for the twelve tribes of Israel.
  5He sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of young bulls to Yahweh.
  6And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins, and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar.
  7He took the Book of the Covenant and read it in the hearing of the people. And they said, “All that Yahweh has spoken will we do, and be obedient.”
 

8Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people and said, “Look! This is the blood of the covenant that Yahweh has made with you concerning all these words.”
 

9Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 of the elders of Israel went up.
  10They saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was like a paved work of sapphire stone, like the skies for clearness.
  11Yet he did not lay his hand on the nobles of the children of Israel; they saw God, and ate and drank.
 

12Yahweh said to Moses, “Come up to me on the mountain and stay here, and I will give you the tables of stone with the law and the commands that I have written, that you may teach them.”
 

13Moses rose up with Joshua his servant, and Moses went up onto the mountain of God.
  14He said to the elders, “Wait here for us, until we come again to you. Behold, Aaron and Hur are with you. Whoever is involved in a dispute can go to them.”
  15And Moses went up on the mountain, and the cloud covered the mountain.
  16The glory of Yahweh settled on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. The seventh day he called to Moses out of the middle of the cloud.
  17The appearance of the glory of Yahweh was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the sight of the children of Israel.
  18Moses entered into the middle of the cloud and went up on the mountain. And Moses was on the mountain 40 days and 40 nights.
 


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Offerings to Build the Tabernacle

1And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  2“Speak to the children of Israel, that they take an offering for me. From everyone whose heart makes him willing you are to take my offering.
  3This is the offering that you are to take from them: gold, silver, bronze,
  4blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats’ hair,
  5rams’ skins dyed red, the skins of dugongs, acacia wood,
  6oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the sweet incense,
  7onyx stones, and stones to be mounted on the ephod and on the breastplate.
 

8They are to make a holy place for me, and I will dwell among them.
  9According to all that I show you, the pattern of the tabernaclea and the pattern of all of its furniture, you are to make it just like that pattern.
 

The Ark

10“They are to make an ark of acacia wood. Its length will be two and a half cubits,b its width a cubit and a half,c and a cubit and a half its height.
  11You are to overlay it with pure gold. You are to overlay it inside and outside, and you are to make a gold molding around it.
  12You are to cast four rings of gold for it and put them in its four feet, two rings will be on the one side of it and two rings on the other side of it.
  13You are to make poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.
  14You are to put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark to carry the ark.
  15The poles are to be in the rings of the ark; they must not be taken from it.
  16You are to put the testimony that I will give you into the ark.
  17“You are to make a mercy seat of pure gold. Its length is to be two and a half cubitsd and its width is to be a cubit and a half.e
  18You are to make two cherubim of hammered gold; you are to make them at the two ends of the mercy seat.
  19Make one cherub at the one end, and one cherub at the other end. You are to make the cherubim on its two ends of one piece with the mercy seat.
  20The cherubim are to spread out their wings upward, covering the mercy seat with their wings, with their faces toward one another; the faces of the cherubim should be toward the mercy seat.
  21You are to put the mercy seat on top of the ark, and in the ark you are to put the testimony that I will give you,
  22and I will meet with you there, and from above the mercy seat—from between the two cherubim that are on the ark of the testimony—I will speak to you about all that I command you for the children of Israel.
 

The Table for the Bread of the Presence

23“You are to make a table of acacia wood. Its length is to be two cubits,f and its width is to be a cubit,g and its height is to be one and a half cubits.h
  24You are to overlay it with pure gold and make a gold molding around it.
  25You are to make a rim of a handbreadth around it. You will make a golden molding on its rim around it.
  26You are to make four rings of gold for it, and put the rings in the four corners that are on its four feet.
  27The rings should be close to the rim, for places for the poles to carry the table.
  28You are to make the poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with gold, so that the table can be carried by them.
  29You are to make its dishes, its spoons, its ladles, and its bowls to pour out offerings with, you are to make them of pure gold.
  30You are to set the Bread of the Presence on the table before me always.
 

The Menorah

31“You are to make a menorah of pure gold. The menorah is to be made of hammered work. Its base, its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its flowers are to be of one piece with it.
  32There are to be six branches extending out from its sides, three branches of the menorah out from its one side, and three branches of the menorah out from its other side.
  33Three cups made like almond blossoms are to be on one branch, a bud and a flower, and three cups made like almond blossoms are to be on the other branch, a bud and a flower, and do the same for all six branches extending out from the menorah.
  34And on the menorah shaft there are to be four cups made like almond blossoms, its buds and its flowers,
  35One bud under the first pair of branches of one piece with it, and a bud under the second pair of branches of one piece with it, and a bud under the third pair of branches of one piece with it; do this for the six branches extending out of the menorah.
  36Their buds and their branches are to be of one piece with it, the whole of it is to be one beaten work of pure gold.
 

37Then you are to make seven oil lamps and set them up on it so that they give light to the space in front of it.
  38Its snuffers and its snuff dishes must be of pure gold.
  39The menorah, with all these accessories, is to be made of a talenti of pure gold.
  40See that you make them according to the pattern you have been shown on the mountain.
 


a[9]
Lit. “Dwelling” or “Dwelling Place”
b[10]
45 inches (114 cm)
c[10]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
d[17]
45 inches (114 cm)
e[17]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
f[23]
36 inches (91 cm)
g[23]
18 inches (46 cm)
h[23]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
i[39]
75 pounds (34 kg)

Exodus Chapter 26  top  PDF  MSWord

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Go to Commentary on Exod 26
 
The Tabernacle: The Inner Curtains

1“Moreover you are to make the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen, and blue and purple and scarlet. And you are to make them with cherubim woven into them, the work of a skillful workman.
  2The length of each curtain is to be 28 cubits,a and the width of each curtain four cubits;b all the curtains are to have the same measure.
  3Five curtains should be coupled together one to another, and the other five curtains should be coupled one to another.
  4You are to make loops of blue on the edge of the end curtain in the first set, and similarly you are to make loops on the edge of the end curtain in the second set.
  5You are to make 50 loops on the one curtain, and you are to make 50 loops on the edge of the curtain that is in the second set; the loops are to be opposite one to another.
  6You are to make 50 clasps of gold and join the curtains to each other with the clasps so that the tabernacle will be a unit.
 

The Outer Covering

7“You are to make curtains of goats’ hair for a covering over the tabernacle; you are to make 11 curtains.
  8The length of each curtain is to be 30 cubits,c and the width of each curtain four cubits.d The 11 curtains are to be the same size.
  9You are to join five curtains into one set, and six curtains into another set, and you are to double over the sixth curtain in the front of the tent.
  10You are to make 50 loops on the edge of the end curtain in the one set, and 50 loops on the edge of the end curtain in the second set.
  11“You are to make 50 clasps of bronze, and put the clasps into the loops, and couple the tent together so that it is a unit.
  12The overhanging part that remains of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remains, is to hang over the back of the tabernacle.
  13The cubit on the one side and the cubit on the other side of what remains in the length of the curtains of the tent, should hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on this side and on that side, to cover it.
  14You are to make a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red and a covering of dugong skins on top.
 

The Walls of the Tabernacle

15“You are to make the boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, standing upright.
  16The length of each board is to be ten cubitse and the width of each board is to be one and a half cubitsf.
  17There must be two projections on the bottom of each board, joined to one another. That is how you are to make all the boards of the tabernacle.
  18You are to make the boards for the tabernacle: 20 boards for the south side,
  19and you are to make 40 bases of silver under the 20 boards, two bases under one board for its two projections, and two bases under another board for its two projections.
  20For the second side of the tabernacle, on the north side, make 20 boards,
  21and their 40 bases of silver, two bases under one board, and two bases under another board.
  22For the back part of the tabernacle, the west side, you are to make six boards.
  23You are to make two boards for the corners of the tabernacle in the back part;
  24they are to be double width, and in the same way they should be whole to its top, to one ring. It must be this was for them both; they will be for the two corners.
  25There are to be eight boards, and their bases of silver, 16 bases; two bases under one board, and two bases under another board.
 

26“You are to make bars of acacia wood, five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle
  27and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle for the back part on the west end.
  28The middle bar in the middle of the boards is to pass through from end to end.
  29You are to overlay the boards with gold and make their rings of gold for places for the bars, and you are to overlay the bars with gold.
  30You are to set up the tabernacle according to the way that it was shown to you on the mountain.
 

The Curtain Between the Holy Place and Holy of Holies

31“You are to make a curtain of blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen. It is to be made with embroidered cherubim, the work of a skillful workman.
  32You are to hang it on four pillars of acacia wood overlaid with gold standing on four bases of silver, and their hooks are to be of gold.
  33You are to hang up the curtain under the clasps and bring the ark of the testimony in there behind the curtain, and the curtain will separate the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies for you.
  34You are to put the mercy seat on the ark of the testimony in the Holy of Holies.
  35You are to place the table outside the curtain and the menorah on the south side of the tabernacle opposite the table, and you are to put the table on the north side.
 

The Curtain at the Entrance of the Holy Place

36“For the entrance of the tent you are to make a screen of blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer.
  37You are to make for the screen five pillars of acacia and overlay them with gold; their hooks are to be of gold, and you are to cast five bases of bronze for them.
 


a[2]
42 feet (12.8 meters)
b[2]
6 feet (1.8 meters)
c[8]
45 feet (13.7 meters)
d[8]
6 feet (1.8 meters)
e[16]
15 feet (4.57 meters)
f[16]
27 inches (68.5 cm)

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Go to Commentary on Exod 27
 
The Altar of Burnt Offering

1“You are to make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide.a The altar must be square, and its height must be three cubits.b
  2You are to make its horns on its four corners; its horns are to be of one piece with it, and you are to overlay it with bronze.
  3You are to make its pots to take away its ashes, its shovels, its basins, its flesh hooks and its fire pans. You are to make all its utensils of bronze.
  4You are to make a grate for it, a network of bronze, and on the net you are to make four bronze rings in its four corners.
  5You are to put it under the ledge of the altar so that the net reaches halfway up the altar.
  6You are to make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and overlay them with bronze.
  7Its poles are to be put into the rings, and the poles are to be on the two sides of the altar when carrying it.
  8You are to make it hollow, out of planks. They are to make it just as it was shown you on the mountain.
 

The Courtyard

9“You are to make the courtyard of the tabernacle. For the south side there are to be hangings for the courtyard made of finely twisted linen 100 cubits longc for one side.
  10And its pillars are to be 20 and their bases 20, made of bronze. The hooks of the pillars and their bands are to be of silver.
  11Likewise for the north side in length there are to be hangings 100 cubits long,d and its pillars 20 and their bases 20, made of of bronze; the hooks of the pillars and their bands made of of silver.
  12For the width of the courtyard on the west side there are to be hangings of 50 cubits,e with their ten pillars and their ten bases.
  13On the east side, toward the sunrise, the width of the courtyard is to be 50 cubits.f
  14The hangings for the one side of the entrance are to be 15 cubits long,g with three pillars and three bases.
  15For the other side of the entrance there are to be hangings 15 cubits long,h with their three pillars and their three bases.
  16And for the gate of the courtyard there is to be a screen 20 cubits long,i made of finely twisted linen of blue and purple and scarlet, the work of the embroiderer. It is to have four pillars with their four bases.
 

17All the pillars of the courtyard are to have bands of silver. Their hooks are to be of silver, and their bases made of bronze.
  18The length of the courtyard is to be 100 cubits,j and the width 50 cubitsk everywhere, and the height is to be five cubits,l with curtains of finely twisted linen and their bases of bronze.
  19All the utensils of the tabernacle used in all its service, and all its tent pegs and all the pegs holding up the courtyard, must be of bronze.
 

The Menorah Oil

20“You are to command the children of Israel that they bring to you pure oil of pressed olives for the light so that the lamps burn continually through the night
  21in the Tent of Meeting, outside the curtain that is in front of the testimony, Aaron and his sons are to tend it from evening to morning before Yahweh. It is to be a statute forever for the children of Israel throughout their generations.
 


a[1]
7 1/2 feet (228.6 cm)
b[1]
4 1/2 feet (137 cm).
c[9]
150 feet or 50 yards (45.7 meters)
d[11]
150 feet or 50 yards (45.7 meters)
e[12]
75 feet (22.8 meters)
f[13]
75 feet (22.8 meters)
g[14]
22.5 feet (6.8 meters)
h[15]
22.5 feet (6.8 meters)
i[16]
30 feet (9.1 meters)
j[18]
150 feet, 50 yards (45.7 meters)
k[18]
75 feet (22.8 meters)
l[18]
7.5 feet (2.3 meters)

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Go to Commentary on Exod 28
 
The Priestly Garments

1“Bring Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, near to you from among the children of Israel to serve me as priests—Aaron, and Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons.
  2You are to make holy garments for Aaron your brother, for glory and for beauty.
  3You are to speak to all who are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him for him to serve me as priest.
  4These are the garments that they must make: a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of checker work, a turban, and a sash. And they are to make holy garments for Aaron your brother and his sons for him to serve me as priest.
  5They are to use the gold, and the blue and the purple and the scarlet, and the fine linen.
 

The Ephod

6“They are to make the ephod of finely twisted linen, of gold, of blue and purple, and scarlet yarn, the work of the skillful workman.
  7It must have two shoulder straps attached to its two corners so that it can be fastened.
  8The skillfully woven waistband that is on it must be of similar work and of the same material, of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet, and of finely twisted linen.
 

9You are to take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel,
  10six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, in the order of their birth.
  11You are to engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel as a gem cutter engraves a seal. You are to set them in filigree settings of gold.
  12You are to put the two stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod to be memorial stones for the children of Israel. And Aaron will carry their names before Yahweh on his two shoulders as a memorial.
  13You are to make gold filigree settings
  14and two chains of pure gold; you are to make them like rope of braided work and you are to attach the braided chains to the settings.
 

The Breastpiece

15“You are to make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skillful workman. You are to make it like the work of the ephod; you are to make it of gold, of blue and purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen.
  16It must be square and folded double, a spana is to be its length and a span its width.
  17Then you are to mount on it settings of stones, four rows of stones. A row of sardius, topaz, and carbuncle is to be the first row;
  18and the second row a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald;
  19and the third row a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst;
  20and the fourth row a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They are to be in gold filigree settings.
  21The stones are to be according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names. Like the engravings of a seal, everyone according to his name, they are to be for the twelve tribes.
 

22“You are to make on the breastplate chains like cords of braided work of pure gold.
  23You are to make on the breastplate two rings of gold, and are to put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
  24You are to put the two braided chains of gold in the two rings at the ends of the breastplate.
  25The other two ends of the two braided chains you are to attach to the two settings, and attach them on the shoulder straps of the ephod in its front.
  26You are to make two rings of gold, and you are to put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on its edge that is toward the side of the ephod inward.
  27You are to make two rings of gold, and are to put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath in its front, close by its coupling above the skillfully woven waistband of the ephod.
  28They are to bind the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue so that it will be on the skillfully woven waistband of the ephod and so that the breastplate does not swing out from the ephod.
 

29Aaron is to carry the names of the children of Israel on the breastplate of judgment on his heart when he goes in to the holy place, for a memorial before Yahweh continually.
  30You are to put the Urim and Thummim in the breastplate of judgment and they are to be on Aaron’s heart when he goes in before Yahweh. And Aaron is to carry the judgment of the children of Israel on his heart before Yahweh continually.
 

The Robe

31“You are to make the robe of the ephod all of blue.
  32It is to have a hole for the head in its middle, it is to have a binding of woven work around its hole, like the hole of a coat of mail so that it does not tear.
  33On its hem you are to make pomegranates of blue and of purple and of scarlet, all around its hem, and bells of gold between and around them,
  34a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, around the hem of the cloak.
  35It must be on Aaron when he serves, and its sound will be heard when he goes into the holy place before Yahweh and when he comes out so that he does not die.
 

The Turban

36“You are to make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it, like the engravings of a seal, ‘HOLY TO YAHWEH.’
 

37You are to fasten on it a cord of blue so it can be put on the turban. It is to be on the front of the turban.
  38It is to be on Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron will bear the guilt connected with the holy things that the children of Israel consecrate, whatever their holy gifts are. And it is to be always on his forehead so that they are accepted before Yahweh.
 

Other Priestly Garments

39You are to weave the tunic of checker work of fine linen, and you are to make a turban of fine linen, and you are to make a sash, the work of the embroiderer.
  40“You are to make tunics for Aaron’s sons, and you are to make sashes for them and you are to make headbands for them, for glory and for beauty.
  41You are to put them on Aaron your brother and on his sons with him, and you are to anoint them and consecrate them and sanctify them in order that they can serve me as priests.
  42You are to make them linen undergarments to cover the flesh of their nakedness. They must reach from the waist even to the thighs,
  43and they must be on Aaron and on his sons when they go in to the Tent of Meeting or when they come near to the altar to minister in the Holy Place so that they do not incur guilt and die. It is to be a statute forever to him and to his descendants after him.
 


a[16]
Roughly 9 inches (23 cm)

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Go to Commentary on Exod 29
 
Instructions about Consecration

1“This is the thing that you are to do to them to make them holy to serve me as priests: take one young bull and two rams without blemish,
  2along with unleavened bread, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil (you are to make them of fine wheat flour),
  3and you are to put them into one basket and bring them in the basket along with the bull and the two rams.
  4Then you are to bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting and wash them with water,
  5and you are to take the garments and put on Aaron the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod, and the breastplate. Then you are to fasten the ephod on him by its skillfully woven waistband
  6and set the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban.
  7Then you are to take the anointing oil and pour it on his head and anoint him.
  8Then you are to bring his sons and put tunics on them.
  9You are to wrap their waists with sashes, Aaron and his sons, and bind headbands on them, and they are to have the priesthood by a perpetual statute. This is the way you are to consecrate Aaron and his sons.
 

10“You are to bring the bull before the Tent of Meeting and Aaron and his sons must lay their hands on the head of the bull.
  11You are to kill the bull before Yahweh at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.
  12You are to take of the blood of the bull and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger; and you are to pour out all the blood at the base of the altar.
  13You are to take all the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and burn them into smoke on the altar.
  14But the flesh of the bull, and its skin, and its dung, you are to burn them with fire outside of the camp; it is a sin offering.
 

15“You are to also take the one ram and Aaron and his sons are to lay their hands on the head of the ram.
  16You are to kill the ram, and you are to take its blood and sprinkle it around on the altar.
  17You are to cut the ram into its pieces and wash its innards and its legs, and put them with its pieces and with its head.
  18You are to burn the whole ram into smoke on the altar: it is a burnt offering to Yahweh, it is a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
 

19“You are to take the other ram and Aaron and his sons must lay their hands on the head of the ram.
  20Then you are to kill the ram and take some of its blood and put it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron and on the tip of the right ear of his sons, and on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot, and sprinkle the blood around on the altar.
  21You are to take of the blood that is on the altar and of the anointing oil and sprinkle it on Aaron, and on his garments, and on his sons, and on the garments of his sons with him; and he will be made holy, and his garments, and his sons, and his sons’ garments with him.
 

22“Also you are to take some of the ram’s fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the innards, the cover of the liver, the two kidneys, the fat that is on them, and the right thigh (for it is a ram of consecration)
  23and one loaf of bread, one cake of oiled bread and one wafer out of the basket of unleavened bread that is before Yahweh.
  24You are to put all of this in Aaron’s hands and in his sons’ hands and are to wave them for a wave offering before Yahweh.
  25You are to take them from their hands and burn them into smoke on the altar on the burnt offering for a pleasant aroma before Yahweh; it is an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
 

26“You are to take the breast of Aaron’s ram of consecration and wave it for a wave offering before Yahweh, and it is to be your portion.
  27You are to sanctify the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the wave offering, that is waved, and that is heaved up, of the ram of consecration, even of what is for Aaron and of what is for his sons;
  28and it will be for Aaron and his sons as their portion forever from the children of Israel; for it is a wave offering, and it will be a wave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifices of their peace offerings, even their wave offering to Yahweh.
 

29“The holy garments of Aaron are to be for his sons after him, to be anointed in them and to be consecrated in them.
  30Seven days must the son who is priest in his place put them on when he comes into the Tent of Meeting to minister in the holy place.
 

31“You are to take the ram of consecration and boil its flesh in a holy place.
  32Aaron and his sons are to eat the flesh of the ram and the bread that is in the basket at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.
  33They must eat those things with which atonement was made, to consecrate and sanctify them: but a stranger must not eat of it, because they are holy.
  34If anything of the flesh of the consecration or of the bread remains to the morning, then you are to burn the remainder with fire; it must not be eaten because it is holy.
 

35“You are to do so to Aaron and to his sons according to all that I have commanded you. You are to consecrate them seven days.
  36Every day you are to offer a bull as a sin offering for atonement, and you are to cleanse the altar when you make atonement for it, and you are to anoint it to sanctify it.
  37Seven days you must make atonement for the altar and sanctify it; and the altar will be most holy; whatever touches the altar will be holy.
 

38“Now this is what you are to offer on the altar: two lambs a year old day by day continually.
  39The one lamb you are to offer in the morning and the other lamb you are to offer at evening:
  40and with the one lamb a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink offering.
  41The other lamb you are to offer at evening, and are to do to it according to the grain offering of the morning, and according to its drink offering for a pleasant aroma, an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
  42It will be a regular burnt offering throughout your generations at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting before Yahweh, where I will meet with you to speak there to you.
  43There I will meet with the children of Israel, and the place will be sanctified by my glory.
  44I will sanctify the Tent of Meeting and the altar; Aaron also and his sons I will sanctify to minister to me in the priest’s office.
  45I will dwell among the children of Israel and will be their God.
  46They will know that I am Yahweh their God, who brought them forth out of the land of Egypt that I might dwell among them: I am Yahweh their God.
 


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The Incense Altar

1“You are to make an altar to burn incense on. You are to make it of acacia wood.
  2Its length must be a cubit and its width a cubit.a It must be square, and its height must be two cubits.b Its horns must be of one piece with it.
  3You are to overlay it with pure gold, its top, its sides around it, and its horns; and you are to make a gold molding around it.
  4You are to make two golden rings for it under its molding; on its two ribs, on its two sides you are to make them, and they will be for places for poles with which to carry it.
  5You are to make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold.
 

6“You are to put it in front of the curtain that is by the ark of the testimony, in front of the mercy seat that is over the testimony where I will meet with you.
  7Aaron must burn incense of sweet spices on it every morning, when he tends the lamps, he must burn it,
  8And when Aaron lights the lamps in the evening, he must burn it, a regular incense offering before Yahweh throughout your generations.
  9You must offer no strange incense on it, nor burnt offering, nor grain offering, and you are to pour no drink offering on it.
 

10“Aaron is to make atonement on its horns once in the year; with the blood of the sin offering of atonement once in the year he is to make atonement for it throughout your generations. It is most holy to Yahweh.”
 

The Atonement Money

11Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  12“When you take a census of the children of Israel, according to those who are numbered among them, then each man must give a ransom for his soul to Yahweh when you number them, that there be no plague among them when you number them.
  13They must give this, everyone who passes over to those who are numbered, half a shekelc according to the shekel of the sanctuary; (the shekel is 20 gerahs;) half a shekel for an offering to Yahweh.
  14Everyone who passes over to those who are numbered, from 20 years old and upward, must give the offering to Yahweh.
  15The rich may not give more and the poor may not give less than the half shekel when they give the offering of Yahweh to make atonement for your souls.
  16You are to take the atonement money from the children of Israel and are to appoint it for the service of the Tent of Meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before Yahweh to make atonement for your souls.”
 

The Bronze Basin

17Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  18“You are to also make a basin of bronze and its base of bronze, in which to wash. You are to put it between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and you are to put water in it.
  19Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet in it.
  20When they go into the Tent of Meeting, they must wash with water so that they do not die; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire to Yahweh.
  21So they must wash their hands and their feet, that they not die; and it is to be a statute forever to them, even to him and to his descendants throughout their generations.”
 

The Anointing Oil

22Moreover Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  23“Also take fine spices of liquid myrrh, 500 shekels,d and of fragrant cinnamon half as much, even 250,e and of fragrant cane, 250;
  24and of cassia 500, according to the shekel of the sanctuary; and a hin of olive oil.
  25You are to make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded according to the art of the perfumer; it will be a holy anointing oil.
 

26“You are to use it to anoint the Tent of Meeting, the ark of the testimony,
  27the table and all its articles, the menorah and its accessories, the altar of incense,
  28the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the bronze basin with its base.
  29You are to sanctify them that they may be most holy. Whatever touches them will be holy.
  30You are to anoint Aaron and his sons and sanctify them, that they may minister to me in the priest’s office.
 

31“You are to speak to the children of Israel, saying, This will be a holy anointing oil to me throughout your generations.
  32It must not be poured on human flesh, and you must not make anything like it in its composition; it is holy. It must be holy to you.
  33Whoever compounds any like it, or whoever puts any of it on a stranger, he must be cut off from his people.”
 

The Sacred Incense

34Yahweh said to Moses, “Take to yourself sweet spices, gum resin and onycha and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense, there is to be an equal weight of each,
  35and you are to make incense from it, a perfume according to the art of the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy.
  36And you are to beat some of it very small and put some of it before the testimony in the Tent of Meeting, where I will meet with you. It is to be most holy to you.
  37The incense that you are to make, you must not make for yourselves using this same composition; it is to be holy for Yahweh for you.
  38Whoever makes any incense like that to smell it, he must be cut off from his people.”
 


a[2]
18 inches (45.7 cm)
b[2]
36 inches (91.4 cm)
c[13]
Roughly .2 ounces (5.5 grams)
d[23]
Roughly 12.5 pounds (5.8 kg)
e[23]
Roughly 6.25 pounds (2.9 kg)

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God’s Provision of the Skilled Workers

1And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  2“Behold, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah,
  3and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom and in understanding and in knowledge in all kinds of craftsmanship,
  4to devise skillful works, to work in gold and in silver and in bronze,
  5and in cutting of stones for settings, and in carving of wood, that he may work in all kinds of craftsmanship.
  6I, behold, I have appointed to be with him Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan; and in the heart of all who are wise-hearted I have put wisdom, so that they may make all that I have commanded you:
  7the Tent of Meeting, and the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat that is on it, and all the furniture of the Tent,
  8and the table and its utensils, and the pure gold menorah with all its utensils, and the altar of incense,
  9and the altar of burnt offering with all its utensils, and the bronze basin and its base,
  10and the finely worked garments—the holy garments for Aaron the priest and the garments of his sons to serve as priests,
  11and the anointing oil, and the incense of sweet spices for the holy place; they must make them according to all that I have commanded you.”
 

Observing the Sabbath

12And Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  13“And you, speak also to the children of Israel, saying, you are to keep my Sabbaths! For it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations so that you will know that I am Yahweh who makes you holy.
  14You are to keep the Sabbath, for it is holiness for you. Everyone who desecrates it must be put to death, yes, death! For whoever does any work on it, that soul must be cut off from among his people.
  15Six days work is to be done, but on the seventh day is a Sabbath of complete rest, holy to Yahweh. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day is to be put to death, yes, death!
  16The children of Israel are to keep the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations as a lasting covenant.
  17It is a sign between me and the children of Israel forever, for in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.”
 

The Two Stone Tablets

18He gave to Moses, when he finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.
 


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The Golden Calf

1Now when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain, the people gathered together to Aaron and said to him, “Come, make a god that will go before us, for as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.”
 

2Aaron said to them, “Break off the golden rings that are in the ears of your wives, of your sons and of your daughters, and bring them to me.”
  3All the people broke off the golden rings that were in their ears and brought them to Aaron.
  4He received what they handed him and fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made it into a cast metal calf. And they said, “This is your god, O Israel, that brought you up out of the land of Egypt.”
 

5When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it, and Aaron made a proclamation and said, “Tomorrow will be a feast to Yahweh.”
  6They rose up early on the next day and offered burnt offerings and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.
 

7And Yahweh spoke to Moses, “Go, get down! For your people who you brought up out of the land of Egypt have corrupted themselves!
  8They have turned aside quickly out of the way that I commanded them. They have made for themselves a cast metal calf and have bowed down to ita and have sacrificed to it, and said, ‘This is your god, O Israel, that brought you up out of the land of Egypt.’”
  9Yahweh said to Moses, “I have seen these people, and behold, they are a stiff-necked people.
  10Now therefore leave me alone, that my wrath may burn hot against them and that I may consume them, and I will make of you a great nation.”
 

11Moses soothed the face of Yahweh his God and said, “O Yahweh, why does your wrath burn hot against your people that you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?
  12Why should the Egyptians say, yes, say, ‘He brought them out for evil, to kill them in the mountains, and to consume them from the surface of the earth?’ Turn from your fierce wrath and change your mind about this evil against your people.
  13Remember Abraham, Isaac and Israel, your servants to whom you swore by your own self and said to them, ‘I will multiply your seed as the stars of heaven, and all this land that I have spoken of I will give to your seed, and they will inherit it forever.’”
  14So Yahweh changed his mind about the evil that he said he would do to his people.
 

15Then Moses turned and went down from the mountain with the two tablets of the testimony in his hand, tablets that were written on both their sides; on the one side and on the other they were written.
  16The tablets were made by God and the writing was God’s writing, engraved on the tablets.
 

17When Joshua heard the sound of the people as they shouted, he said to Moses, “The sound of war is in the camp!”
 

18But Moses said, “It is not the sound of victory, nor is it the sound of defeat, but it is the sound singing that I hear.”
 

19And when he drew near to the camp, he saw the calf and the dancing, and Moses’ anger burned, and he threw the tablets out of his hands and broke them at the foot of the mountain.
  20He took the calf that they had made and burned it with fire, ground it to powder and scattered it on the surface of the water, and made the children of Israel drink it.
 

21Then Moses said to Aaron, “What did these people do to you, that you have brought on them such a great sin?”
 

22Aaron said, “Do not let the anger of my lord grow hot. You yourself know the people, that they are set on evil.
  23For they said to me, ‘Make us a god who will go before us, for as for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.’
  24So I said to them, ‘Whoever has any gold, let them break it off,’ so they gave it to me, and I threw it into the fire, and out came this calf.”
 

25When Moses saw that the people had broken loose, (for Aaron had let them loose to be whispered about among their enemies),
  26then Moses stood at the entrance of the camp and said, “Whoever is on Yahweh’s side, come to me!” And all the sons of Levi gathered to him.
  27He said to them, “This is what Yahweh, the God of Israel, says: ‘Every man put his sword on his thigh, and go back and forth from entrance to entrance throughout the camp, and every man kill his brother, and every man his friend, and every man his neighbor.’”
  28The sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses, and there fell of the people that day about 3,000 men.
  29Moses said, “Today you have been dedicated to Yahweh, for every man was against his son and against his brother, and he has bestowed on you a blessing this day.”
 

30And on the next day Moses said to the people, “You, you have sinned a great sin. Now I will go up to Yahweh. Perhaps I will be able to make atonement for your sin.”
 

31So Moses returned to Yahweh and said, “Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made for themselves a god of gold.
  32Yet now, if you would only forgive their sin…! But if not, please blot me out of your book that you have written.”
 

33Yahweh said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book.
  34Now go, lead the people to the place I spoke to you about. Behold, my angel will go before you. Nevertheless, in the day when I visit, I will visit their sin upon them.”
  35And Yahweh struck the people with a plague because they made the calf, the one that Aaron made.
 


a[8]
Or, “worshiped it”

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The Tent Outside the Camp

1Yahweh spoke to Moses, “Depart, go up from here, you and the people that you have brought up out of the land of Egypt, to the land of which I swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, ‘I will give it to your seed.’
  2I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
  3Go up to a land flowing with milk and honey. But I will not go up in the midst of you, for you are a stiff-necked people, lest I consume you on the way.”
  4When the people heard this sad news they mourned, and no one put on his jewelry.
 

5Yahweh said to Moses, “Tell the children of Israel, ‘You are a stiff-necked people. If I were to go up into your midst for one moment, I would consume you. Therefore now take off your jewelry from you, that I may know what to do to you.’”
  6The children of Israel stripped themselves of their jewelry from Mount Horeb onward.
 

7Now Moses used to take the tent and to pitch it outside the camp, far away from the camp, and he called it “The Tent of Meeting.” It came to pass that everyone who sought Yahweh went out to the Tent of Meeting that was outside the camp.
  8And when Moses went out to the Tent, all the people rose up and stood, everyone at their tent entrance, and watched Moses until he had gone into the Tent.
  9It came to pass, when Moses entered into the Tent that the pillar of cloud descended, stood at the entrance of the Tent, and spoke with Moses.
  10All the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the entrance of the Tent and all the people got up and bowed down,a everyone at their tent entrance.
  11Yahweh spoke to Moses face to face as a man speaks to his friend. He turned again into the camp, but his servant Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, did not depart out of the Tent.
 

Moses see the Goodness of Yahweh

12Moses said to Yahweh, “Behold, you tell me, ‘Bring up this people,’ but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. Yet you have said, ‘I know you by name, and you have also found favor in my eyes.’
  13Now therefore, if I have found favor in your eyes, please now show me your ways so that I may know you in order to continue to find favor in your eyes. Consider also that this nation is your people.”
 

14He said, “My presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”
 

15He said to him, “If your presence does not go with me, do not carry us up from here.
  16For how would people know that I have found favor in your eyes, I and your people? Is it not in that you go with us, so that we are separated, I and your people, from all the people who are on the face of the earth?”
 

17Yahweh said to Moses, “I will do this thing also that you have spoken; for you have found favor in my eyes, and I know you by name.”
 

18He said, “Please show me your glory.”
 

19He said, “I will make all my goodness pass by in front of you and will proclaim the name of Yahweh before you. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.”
  20But he said, “You cannot see my face, for no one can see me and live.”
  21Yahweh also said, “Behold, there is a place by me, and you are to stand on the rock.
  22It will happen while my glory passes by that I will put you in a cleft of the rock and will cover you with my hand until I have passed by;
  23then I will take away my hand and you will see my back, but my face will not be seen.”
 


a[10]
Or, “worshiped”

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New Stone Tablets

1Yahweh said to Moses, “Chisel two stone tablets like the first, and I will write on the tablets the words that were on the first tablets that you broke.
  2Be ready by the morning and come up in the morning to Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to me on the top of the mountain.
  3No one may come up with you, and do not let anyone be seen throughout all the mountain; neither let the flocks nor herds feed before that mountain.”
 

4He chiseled two tablets of stone like the first, and Moses rose up early in the morning and went up on Mount Sinai as Yahweh had commanded him, and took in his hand two stone tablets.
 

5Yahweh descended in the cloud and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of Yahweh.
  6Yahweh passed by before him and proclaimed, “Yahweh! Yahweh, a merciful and gracious God, slow to anger, and abundant in covenant faithfulness and truth,
  7keeping covenant faithfulness for thousands, forgiving iniquity and disobedience and sin; and that will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, and on the children’s children, on the third and on the fourth generation.”
 

8Moses hurried and kneeled on the ground and bowed down.a
  9He said, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, Lord, please let the Lord go in the midst of us; although this is a stiff-necked people; pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for your inheritance.”
 

Covenant Obligations

10He said, “Behold, I cut a covenant. In the presence of all your people I will do marvels such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the people that you live among will see the work of Yahweh, for it is an awesome thing that I do with you.
  11Observe what I command you this day. Behold, I drive out before you the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
  12Be careful, lest you cut a covenant with the inhabitants of the land where you are going, lest it be for a snare in the midst of you;
  13but you must break down their altars and dash in pieces their sacred standing-stones, and you must cut down their Asherah poles,
  14for you are to worshipb no other god; for Yahweh, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God.
 

15“Do not cut a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, lest they prostitute themselves after their gods, and sacrifice to their gods, and someone invites you and you eat of his sacrifice;
  16and you take of their daughters to your sons, and their daughters prostitute themselves after their gods and make your sons prostitute themselves after their gods.
 

17“Do not make cast idols for yourselves.
 

18“You are to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Seven days you are to eat unleavened bread as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib; for in the month Abib you came out from Egypt.
 

19“All that opens the womb is mine, and all your livestock that is male, the firstborn of cow and sheep.
  20The firstborn of a donkey you must redeem with a lamb: and if you will not redeem it, then you must break its neck. All the firstborn of your sons you must redeem. No one is to appear before me empty.
 

21“Six days you are to work, but on the seventh day you must rest; in plowing time and in harvest you must rest.
 

22“You are to observe the Feast of Weeks with the firstfruits of the wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the year’s end.
  23Three times in the year all your males are to appear before the Lord Yahweh, the God of Israel.
  24For I will drive out nations before you and enlarge your borders. No man will covet your land when you go up to appear before Yahweh your God three times in the year.
 

25“Do not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread, nor must the sacrifice of the feast of the Passover be left to the morning.
 

26“You are to bring the first of the firstfruits of your ground to the house of Yahweh your God. “You must not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”
 

27Yahweh said to Moses, “Write you these words, for in accordance with these words I have cut a covenant with you and with Israel.”
 

28He was there with Yahweh 40 days and 40 nights; he neither ate bread nor drank water. He wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.c
 

Moses’ Radiant Face

29It came to pass, when Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two tablets of the testimony in Moses’ hand, when he came down from the mountain, that Moses didn’t know that the skin of his face shone by reason of his speaking with him.
  30When Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come near him.
  31Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned to him, and Moses spoke to them.
  32Afterward all the children of Israel came near, and he gave them all of the commandments that Yahweh had spoken with him on Mount Sinai.
  33When Moses was done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face.
  34But when Moses went in before Yahweh to speak with him, he took the veil off until he came out; and he came out, and spoke to the children of Israel what he was commanded.
  35The children of Israel saw Moses’ face, that the skin of Moses’ face shone: and Moses put the veil on his face again until he went in to speak with him.
 


a[8]
Or, worshiped”
b[14]
Or, “bow down to”
c[28]
In Hebrew, the “ten words.”

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The Sabbath Command

1Moses assembled all the congregation of the children of Israel and said to them, “These are the words that Yahweh has commanded that you should do them.
  2‘Six days is work to be done, but on the seventh day there is to be a holy day for you, a Sabbath of solemn rest to Yahweh; whoever does any work on it must be put to death.
  3You are not to light a fire in any of your dwellings on the Sabbath day.’”
 

Building the Tabernacle

4Moses spoke to all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, “This is the thing that Yahweh commanded, saying,
  5Take from among you an offering to Yahweh. Whoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, Yahweh’s offering: gold, silver, bronze,
  6blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats’ hair,
  7rams’ skins dyed red, dugong skins, acacia wood,
  8oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the sweet incense,
  9onyx stones and stones to be set for the ephod and for the breastplate.
 

10“Let every wise-hearted man among you come and make all that Yahweh has commanded:
  11the tabernacle, its outer covering, its roof, its clasps, its boards, its bars, its pillars, and its bases;
  12the ark, and its poles, the mercy seat, the curtain of the screen,
  13the table with its poles and all its utensils, and the Bread of the Presence;
  14the menorah also for the light, with its utensils, its oil lamps, and the oil for the light;
  15and the altar of incense with its poles, the anointing oil, the sweet incense, the screen for the entrance at the door of the tabernacle;
  16the altar of burnt offering with its grate of bronze, its poles, and all its utensils; the bronze basin and its base;
  17the hangings of the courtyard, its pillars, their bases, and the screen for the gate of the courtyard;
  18the tent pegs of the tabernacle, the pegs of the courtyard, and their cords;
  19the finely worked garments for ministering in the Holy Place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons to minister in the priest’s office.”
 

20All the congregation of the children of Israel departed from the presence of Moses.
  21They came, everyone whose heart stirred him up, and everyone whom his spirit made willing, and brought Yahweh’s offering for the work of the Tent of Meeting and for all of its service and for the holy garments.
  22They came, both men and women, as many as were willing-hearted, and brought brooches, earrings, signet rings and armlets, all jewels of gold; even every man who offered an offering of gold to Yahweh.
  23Everyone with whom was found blue, purple, scarlet, fine linen, goats’ hair, rams’ skins dyed red, and dugong skins, brought them.
  24Everyone who offered an offering of silver and bronze brought Yahweh’s offering, and everyone with whom was found acacia wood for any work of the service brought it.
  25All the women who were wise-hearted spun with their hands and brought what they had spun, the blue, the purple, the scarlet and the fine linen.
  26All the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun the goats’ hair.
  27The rulers brought the onyx stones and the stones to be mounted on the ephod and on the breastplate,
  28and the spice, and the oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the sweet incense.
  29The children of Israel brought a freewill offering to Yahweh, every man and woman whose heart made them willing to bring for all the work that Yahweh had commanded to be made by Moses.
 

Bezalel and Oholiab

30Moses said to the children of Israel, “Behold, Yahweh has called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur of the tribe of Judah.
  31He has filled him with the spirit of God in wisdom, in understanding, in knowledge and in all kinds of workmanship,
  32and to make skillful works, to work in gold, in silver, in bronze,
  33in cutting of stones for mounting and in carving of wood, to work in all kinds of skillful workmanship.
  34And he has put in his heart to teach, both he and Oholiab the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan.
  35He has filled them with wisdom of heart, to work all kinds of workmanship, of the engraver, of the skillful workman and of the embroiderer, in blue, in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of those who do any workmanship and of those who make skillful works.
 


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1“Bezalel and Oholiab are to work with every wise-hearted man in whom Yahweh has put wisdom and understanding to know how to work all the work for the service of the sanctuary, according to all that Yahweh has commanded.”
 

2Moses called Bezalel and Oholiab and every wise-hearted man in whose heart Yahweh had put wisdom, even everyone whose heart stirred him up to come to the work to do it,
  3and they received from Moses all the offering that the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary with which to make it. They brought yet to him freewill offerings every morning.
 

4All the wise men who performed all the work of the sanctuary each came from his work that they did.
  5They spoke to Moses, saying, “The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work that Yahweh commanded to make.”
 

6Moses gave commandment, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying, “Let neither man nor woman make anything else for the offering for the sanctuary.” So the people were restrained from bringing.
  7For the stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much.
 

Building the Tabernacle--Curtains, Boards, Bars and Bases

8All the wise-hearted men among those who did the work made the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen, blue, purple, and scarlet, with cherubim, the work of the skillful workman they made them.
  9The length of each curtain was 28 cubits,a and the width of each curtain four cubitsb. All the curtains had the same measure.
  10He coupled five curtains to one another, and the other five curtains he coupled one to another.
  11He made loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain from the edge in the coupling. Likewise he made in the edge of the curtain that was outmost in the second coupling.
  12He made 50 loops in the one curtain, and he made 50 loops in the edge of the curtain that was in the second coupling. The loops were opposite one to another.
  13He made 50 clasps of gold and coupled the curtains one to another with the clasps, so the tabernacle was a unit.
 

14He made curtains of goats’ hair for a covering over the tabernacle. He made them 11 curtains.
  15The length of each curtain was 30 cubits,c and four cubitsd was the width of each curtain. The 11 curtains had the same measurement.
  16He coupled five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves.
  17He made 50 loops on the edge of the curtain that was outmost in the coupling, and he made 50 loops on the edge of the curtain that was outmost in the second coupling.
  18He made 50 clasps of bronze to couple the tent together, that it might be a unit.
  19He made a covering for the tent of rams’ skins dyed red, and a covering of dugong skins on top.
 

20He made the boards for the tabernacle of acacia wood, standing up.
  21Ten cubitse was the length of a board, and a cubit and a halff the width of each board.
  22Each board had two tenons joined one to another. He made all the boards of the tabernacle this way.
  23He made the boards for the tabernacle: 20 boards for the south side southward.
  24He made 40 bases of silver under the 20 boards; two bases under one board for its two tenons, and two bases under another board for its two tenons.
  25For the second side of the tabernacle, on the north side, he made 20 boards
  26and their 40 bases of silver; two bases under one board and two bases under another board.
  27For the far part of the tabernacle westward he made six boards.
  28He made two boards for the corners of the tabernacle in the far part.
  29They were double beneath, and in the same way they were all the way to its top to one ring. He did this to both of them in the two corners.
  30There were eight boards, and their bases of silver, 16 bases; under every board two bases.
 

31He made bars of acacia wood; five for the boards of the one side of the tabernacle,
  32and five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the tabernacle for the back side on the west.
  33He made the middle bar to pass through in the middle of the boards from the one end to the other.
  34He overlaid the boards with gold and made their rings of gold for places for the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold.
 

35He made the curtain of blue, purple, scarlet, and finely twisted linen, with cherubim. He made it the work of a skillful workman.
  36He made four pillars of acacia for it, and overlaid them with gold. Their hooks were of gold. He cast four bases of silver for them.
 

37He made a screen for the entrance of the tent of blue, purple, scarlet, and finely twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer,
  38and the five pillars of it with their hooks. He overlaid their capitals and their bands with gold, and their five bases were of bronze.
 


a[9]
42 feet (12.8 meters)
b[9]
6 feet (1.8 meters)
c[15]
45 feet (13.7 meters)
d[15]
6 feet (1.8 meters)
e[21]
15 feet (4.57) meters
f[21]
27 inches (68.5 cm)

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Go to Commentary on Exod 37
 
INSIDE THE TABERNACLE: Making the Ark of the Covenant

1Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood. Its length was two and a half cubits,a and its width was a cubit and a half,b and a cubit and a half was its height.
  2He overlaid it with pure gold inside and outside and made a molding of gold for it around it.
  3He cast four rings of gold for it in its four feet; even two rings on its one side and two rings on its other side.
  4He made poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold.
  5He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark to carry the ark.
 

6He made a mercy seat of pure gold. Its length was two and a half cubitsc and a cubit and a half was its width.d
  7He made two cherubim of gold. He made them of beaten work at the two ends of the mercy seat,
  8one cherub at the one end and one cherub at the other end. He made the cherubim of one piece with the mercy seat at its two ends.
  9The cherubim spread out their wings on high, covering the mercy seat with their wings, with their faces toward one another. The faces of the cherubim were toward the mercy seat.
 

Making the Table of the Bread of the Presence

10He made the table of acacia wood. Its length was two cubits,e and its width was a cubit,f and its height was a cubit and a half.g
  11He overlaid it with pure gold and made a gold molding around it.
  12He made a border of a handbreadth around it and made a golden molding on its border around it.
  13He cast four rings of gold for it and put the rings in the four corners that were on its four feet.
  14The rings were close by the border, the places for the poles to carry the table.
  15He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold to carry the table.
  16He made the utensils that were on the table, its dishes, its spoons, its bowls and its pitchers with which to pour out, of pure gold.
 

Making the Menorah

17And he made the menorah of pure gold. He made it of hammered work. Its base, its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its flowers were of one piece with it.
  18There were six branches going out of its sides: three branches of the menorah out of its one side and three branches of the menorah out of its other side;
  19three cups made like almond blossoms in one branch, a bud and a flower, and three cups made like almond blossoms in the other branch, a bud and a flower: so for the six branches going out of the menorah.
  20On the menorah were four cups made like almond blossoms, its buds and its flowers;
  21and a bud under two branches of one piece with it, and a bud under two branches of one piece with it, and a bud under two branches of one piece with it, for the six branches going out of it.
  22Their buds and their branches were of one piece with it. The whole of it was one piece of pure hammered gold.
  23He made its seven lamps and its snuffers and its snuff dishes of pure gold.
  24He made it of a talent of pure gold, with all its utensils.
 

Making the Golden Altar of Incense

25He made the altar of incense of acacia wood. It was square: its length was a cubit and its width a cubit.h Its height was two cubits.i Its horns were of one piece with it.
  26He overlaid it with pure gold, its top, its sides around it, and its horns. He made a gold molding around it.
  27He made two golden rings for it under its molding crown, on its two ribs, on its two sides, for places for poles with which to carry it.
  28He made the poles of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold.
 

29He made the holy anointing oil and the pure incense of sweet spices according to the art of the perfumer.
 


a[1]
45 inches (114.3 cm)
b[1]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
c[6]
45 inches (114.3 cm)
d[6]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
e[10]
36 inches (91.4 cm)
f[10]
18 inches (45.7 cm)
g[10]
27 inches (68.5 cm)
h[25]
18 inches (45.7 cm)
i[25]
36 inches (91.4 cm)

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OUTSIDE THE TABERNACLE: Making the Altar of Burnt Offering

1He made the altar of burnt offering of acacia wood. It was square. Its length was five cubits,a its width was five cubits, and its height was three cubits.b
  2He made its horns on its four corners. Its horns were of one piece with it and he overlaid it with bronze.
 

3He made all the utensils of the altar, the pots, the shovels, the basins, the forks, and the fire pans. He made all its utensils of bronze.
  4He made for the altar a grate of a network of bronze, under the ledge around it beneath reaching halfway up.
  5He cast four rings for the four ends of the bronze grate to be places for the poles.
  6He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze.
  7He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar with which to carry it. He made it hollow with planks of wood.
 

Making the Bronze Basin

8He made the basin of bronze, and its base of bronze, out of the mirrors of the serving women, who served at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.
 

Making the Courtyard

9He made the courtyard: for the south side southward the hangings of the courtyard were of finely twisted linen, 100 cubits long;c
  10their pillars were 20 and their bases 20 of bronze; the hooks of the pillars and their bands were of silver.
  11For the north side 100 cubits, their pillars 20 and their bases 20 of bronze; the hooks of the pillars and their bands of silver.
  12For the west side were made hangings of 50 cubits long,d their pillars ten and their bases ten; the hooks of the pillars and their bands of silver.
  13For the east side eastward 50 cubits.
  14The hangings for the one side were 15 cubits;e their pillars three, and their bases three,
  15and the same for the other side. On this side and on that side, by the gate of the courtyard there were hangings of 15 cubits long;f their pillars three, and their bases three.
  16All the hangings around the courtyard were of finely twisted linen.
  17The bases for the pillars were of bronze. The hooks of the pillars and their bands were of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals of silver, and all the pillars of the courtyard were banded with silver.
 

18The screen for the gate of the courtyard was the work of the embroiderer, of finely twisted linen of blue, purple, and scarlet. The length was 20 cubits, and the height (all the way along) was five cubits, like the curtains of the courtyard.
  19Their pillars were four and their bases were four, made of bronze; their hooks of silver, and the overlaying of their capitals and their bands were of silver.
  20All the tent pegs of the tabernacle and around the courtyard were of bronze.
 

Inventory of Materials

21This is the amount of material used for the tabernacle, even the Tabernacle of the Testimony, as it was counted according to the commandment of Moses for the service of the Levites by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest.
  22Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur of the tribe of Judah, made everything that Yahweh commanded Moses.
  23With him was Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach of the tribe of Dan, an engraver and a skillful workman and an embroiderer in blue, in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen.
 

24All the gold that was used for the work in all the work of the sanctuary, even the gold of the offering, was 29 talents and 730 shekels,g according to the shekel of the sanctuary.
  25The silver of those in the congregation who were counted in the census was 100 talentsh and 1,775 shekelsi according to the shekel of the sanctuary:
  26a beka a head, that is, half a shekel, according to the shekel of the sanctuary, for everyone who crossed over to those who were counted, from 20 years old and upward, 603,550 men.
  27The 100 talents of silver were for casting the bases of the sanctuary and the bases of the curtain; 100 bases for the 100 talents, a talent for each base.j
  28Of the 1,775 shekels he made hooks for the pillars, overlaid their capitals and made bands for them.
 

29The bronze of the offering was 70 talentsk and 2,400 shekels.l
  30With this he made the bases for the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, the bronze altar, the bronze grating for it, all the utensils of the altar,
  31the bases around the courtyard, the bases of the gate of the courtyard, all the tent pegs of the tabernacle, and all the pegs around the courtyard.
 


a[1]
7.5 feet (2.3 meters)
b[1]
4.5 feet (137.1 cm).
c[9]
Roughly 150 feet (45.7 m)
d[12]
Roughly 75 feet (22.8 m)
e[14]
Roughly 22:5 feet (6.8 m)
f[15]
Roughly 22.5 feet (6.8 m)
g[24]
A total weight of roughly 2,194 lbs (995 kg)
h[25]
Roughly 3.75 tons (3.4 metric tons)
i[25]
Roughly 44 pounds (20 kg)
j[27]
A talent was roughly 75 pounds (34 kg)
k[29]
Roughly 5,250 pounds (2381 kg)
l[29]
Roughly 60 pounds (27 kg)

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Go to Commentary on Exod 39
 
Making the Priestly Garments

1Of the blue, purple, and scarlet, they made finely worked garments for serving in the holy place, and they made the holy garments for Aaron just as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

Making the Ephod

2He made the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.
  3They beat the gold into thin plates and cut it into wires to work it in the blue, in the purple, in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, the work of the skillful workman.
  4They made attaching shoulder straps for it, at the two upper corners it was attached.
  5The skillfully woven waistband that was on it, with which to fasten it on, was of the same piece, similar in its workmanship; of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, just as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

6They worked the onyx stones in gold filigree settings, engraved with the engravings of a seal according to the names of the sons of Israel.
  7He put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod to be stones for a memorial for the children of Israel, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

Making the Breastpiece

8He made the breastplate, the work of a skillful workman, like the work of the ephod; of gold, of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen.
  9It was square. They made the breastplate folded double. Its length was a span,a and its width a span, and folded double.
  10They set in it four rows of stones. A row of sardius, topaz, and carbuncle was the first row;
  11and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald;
  12and the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst;
  13and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They were set in gold filigree settings.
 

14The stones were according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to their names; like the engravings of a seal, everyone according to his name, for the twelve tribes.
 

15They made on the breastplate chains like cords of braided work of pure gold.
  16They made two settings of gold and two gold rings, and put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate.
  17They put the two braided chains of gold in the two rings at the ends of the breastplate.
  18The other two ends of the two braided chains they put on the two settings, and put them on the shoulder straps of the ephod on its front.
  19They made two rings of gold and put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on its edge, that was toward the side of the ephod inward.
  20They made two rings of gold and put them on the two shoulder straps of the ephod underneath, in its front, close by its coupling, above the skillfully woven band of the ephod.
  21They bound the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the ephod with a cord of blue, so that it would be on the skillfully woven waistband of the ephod and so that the breastplate might not swing out from the ephod, just as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

Making the Robe

22He made the robe of the ephod of woven work, all of blue.
  23The opening of the robe in its middle was like the opening of a coat of mail, with a binding around its opening so that it would not tear.
  24And on the hem of the robe they made pomegranates of blue, purple, scarlet, and twined linen.
  25They made bells of pure gold and put the bells between the pomegranates around the hem of the robe, between the pomegranates;
  26a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate around the skirts of the cloak to minister in, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

The Other Priestly Garments

27They made the tunics of fine linen of woven work for Aaron and for his sons,
  28and the turban of fine linen, and the linen headbands of fine linen, and the linen undergarments of fine twined linen,
  29and the sash of fine twined linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, the work of the embroiderer, just as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

Making the Holy Diadem

30They made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold and wrote on it a writing, like the engravings of a seal: “HOLY TO YAHWEH.”
 

31They tied to it a cord of blue to attach it to the turban, just as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

Moses’ Inspection of the Tabernacle

32Thus all the work of the tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting was finished. The children of Israel did according to all that Yahweh commanded Moses; so they did.
  33They brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent with all its furniture, its clasps, its boards, its bars, its pillars, its bases,
  34the covering of rams’ skins dyed red, the covering of dugong skins, the curtain for the screen,
  35the ark of the testimony with its poles, the mercy seat;
  36the table, all its utensils, the Bread of the Presence;
  37the pure gold menorah, its oil lamps, even its arrangement of lamps, all its utensils, the oil for the light;
  38the golden altar, the anointing oil, the sweet incense, the screen for the entrance of the Tent;
  39the bronze altar, its grate of bronze, its poles, all of its utensils; the bronze basin and its base;
  40the curtains of the courtyard, its pillars, its bases, the screen for the gate of the courtyard, its cords, its pegs, all the utensils for the service of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting;
  41the finely worked garments for serving in the Holy Place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest and the garments for his sons to serve as priests.
  42According to all that Yahweh commanded Moses, so the children of Israel did all the work.
  43Moses saw all the work, and behold, they had done it just as Yahweh had commanded, this they had done, and Moses blessed them.
 


a[9]
Roughly 9 inches (23 cm)

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Setting up the Tabernacle

1Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
  2“On the first day of the first month you are to raise up the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting.
  3You are to put the ark of the testimony in it, and you are to screen the ark with the curtain.
  4You are to bring in the table and set in order the things that are on it. You are to bring in the menorah and light its lamps.
  5You are to set the golden altar of incense before the ark of the testimony and put up the screen for the entrance to the tabernacle.
  6“You are to set the altar of burnt offering in front of the entrance of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting.
  7You are to set the bronze basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar and are to put water in it.
  8You are to set up the courtyard around it and hang up the screen of the gate of the courtyard.”
 

9“You are to take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle and all that is in it, and are to sanctify it, and all its furniture; and it will be holy.
  10You are to anoint the altar of burnt offering, with all its utensils, and sanctify the altar; and the altar will be most holy.
  11You are to anoint the bronze basin and its base, and sanctify it.
 

12“You are to bring Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting and are to wash them with water.
  13You are to put the holy garments on Aaron, and you are to anoint him and sanctify him, so that he may serve me as priest.
  14You are to bring his sons and put tunics on them.
  15You are to anoint them as you anointed their father, so that they may serve me as priests. Their anointing will be to them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their generations.”
 

16So Moses did those things. According to all that Yahweh commanded him, so he did.
  17And in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, the tabernacle was set up.
  18Moses raised up the tabernacle and placed its bases, and set up its boards, and put in its bars and raised up its pillars.
  19He spread the covering over the tent and put the roof of the tabernacle on top of it, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

20He took the testimony and put it into the ark, and attached the poles to the ark and put the mercy seat over the ark.
  21He brought the ark into the tabernacle and hung up the curtain for the screen, and screened the ark of the testimony as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

22He put the table in the Tent of Meeting, on the north side of the tabernacle, outside of the curtain.
  23He set the bread in order on it before Yahweh, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
  24He put the menorah in the Tent of Meeting, opposite the table, on the south side of the tabernacle,
  25and he lit the lamps before Yahweh, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

26He put the golden altar in the Tent of Meeting in front of the curtain,
  27and he burned incense made of sweet spices on it, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
  28He hung up the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle.
  29He set the altar of burnt offering at the entrance of the tabernacle, the Tent of Meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the grain offering, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

30He set the bronze basin between the Tent of Meeting and the altar and put water in for washing.
  31Moses, Aaron, and his sons washed their hands and their feet there.
  32When they went into the Tent of Meeting and when they came near to the altar, they washed, as Yahweh commanded Moses.
 

33He set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar and set up the screen for the gate of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.
 

The Glory of Yahweh

34Then the cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and the glory of Yahweh filled the tabernacle.
  35Moses was not able to enter into the Tent of Meeting because the cloud stayed on it, and Yahweh’s glory filled the tabernacle.
 

36When the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward throughout all their journeys;
  37but if the cloud was not taken up, then they did not travel until the day that it was taken up.
  38For throughout all their journeys the cloud of Yahweh was on the tabernacle by day and there was fire in the cloud by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel.
 


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