“Vashti.” She is referred to as “queen” when she is mentioned before this (Esther 1:9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17). This is the first time Vashti is not referred to as “Queen,” (something Memucan would have done on purpose), and she is never referred to as “queen” after this.
“the laws of the Persians and the Medes.” Media had been a powerful nation but had been conquered by the Persians. Nevertheless, they had much in common, including some ancient laws. For more on the country of Media, see the REV commentary on Jeremiah 51:11.