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And I lifted up my eyes and looked, and behold, a ram that had two horns was standing before the river, and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher one came up last. Bible

“a ram.” This is a picture of the Medo-Persian Empire. “A ram was a fitting symbol of the empire, for according to Ammianus Marcellius (10.1; fourth century AD), the Persian ruler carried the gold head of a ram when he marched before his army” (Stephen Miller; New American Commentary).

“high.” Many versions read “long,” but the text reads “high” and thus makes a cultural reference to being exalted and honored. The horn that was “higher” than the other was more exalted and honored (and powerful) than the other.


Commentary for: Daniel 8:3