19:31. “virgin daughter, Zion.” The Hebrew text reads, “daughter of Zion,” but the genitive is a genitive of apposition, “the daughter who is Zion,” and the best way to present that without being confusing is “daughter Zion.” Describing Zion as a daughter—the figure of speech personification—can have the connotation of someone that is beloved, but it also more often, and certainly here, it has the connotation of one who is like a daughter in that culture: vulnerable, in need of support and protection. But here this young daughter who would almost certainly be raped and/or killed if the Assyrians breached Jerusalem, mocks and tosses her head at the mighty Assyrian army. “The daughter, Jerusalem” is also “the daughter of Jerusalem” in the text and is also an idiom, a genitive of apposition and the figure of speech personification. [For more on the figure of speech personification, see commentary on Prov. 1:20].