“he had appointed priests for himself.” Jeroboam chose priests who were not descendants of Aaron to be the priests for his shrines and golden calves.
“shrines.” The Hebrew word “shrines” is bamot, which referred to a place that was leveled and built up and on which were placed various idols and objects of worship. Many of the towns had such shrines (see commentary on Num. 33:52).
“goat demons.” Demons have associated themselves with goats and appeared as goats or goat men from very ancient times, and biblically, unbelievers are referred to as “goats” (Matt. 25:33). Israel worshiped goat demons when they were in the wilderness (Lev. 17:7).
[For more on Azazel and goat demons, see commentaries on Leviticus 16:8 and Isaiah 14:9.]